Queriesd marked with a double red question mark.  Monday, 03 September 2007.


1.conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant.

2. inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto:

3.‘infandum, regina, iubes renovare dolorem,

4.Troianas ut opes et lamentabile regnum

5.eruerint Danai, quaeque ipse miserrima vidi

6.et quorum pars magna fui, quis talia fando

7.Myrmidonum Dolopumne aut duri miles Vlixi

8.temperet a lacrimis? et iam nox umida caelo

9.praecipitat suadentque cadentia sidera somnos.

1-2.Everyone fell silent, each keeping his gaze on  the leader Aeneas, who began thus from his high place:

3-6. “Majesty, you insist that I re-live the unspeakable pain suffered when the Greeks took and ransacked the forlorn city of Troy.  I was a witness to this dreadful event, and indeed took a large part in it myself.

6-8.Is there anyone who would not weep when speaking of such a thing?  Even a Myrmidon, or a Dolopian?  Even a soldier marching with the implacable Ulysses?

8-9.Now, night is already descending from the damp sky, and the wheeling constellations urge us to sleep.

1. intentus: J gives it as an adjective, eager.  P suggests it is an active ‘reflexive middle’, as here.


4-5: I use took and ransack to separate the ‘eruerint’ of the city and its riches.


7: Myrmidonum, Dolopum gen. pl. J.102.


9: wheeling for falling, I don’t see how the falling (setting?) of the stars would work??

209.fit sonitus spumante salo;  iamque arva tenebant

210.ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguini et igni

211.sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.

212.diffugimus visu exsangues.  illi agmine certo

213.Laoconta petunt;  et primum parva duorum

214.corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque

215.implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus;

209-10.We heard the noise of the foaming sea, and then they were on land, their eyes gleaming, suffused with blood and fire; 

211.they were hissing, and their flickering tongues played round their mouths.

212-3.The blood drained from our faces at the sight, and we scattered in panic.  On they came, looking like a steady column of soldiers, heading for Laocoon.

213-5.First, each of the serpents grasped the body of one of Laocoon's two sons and wrapped him round, chewing at his poor little body, eating it. 

209.sonitus sonitus m. = noise, loud sound.  spumo 1. = foam.  salum sali n. = sea.  arvum arvi n. = land.

210.suffecti: I don't understand P's idea that this is another active reflexive middle;  the eyes are not suffusing themselves, but are being suffused, a true passive  If only one could ask him.  I follow J and  the acc. of respect: suffused with blood and fire as to the eyes.

211.lambo lambere lambi = lick.

212.visu is not a supine, but from visus visus m. = vision.  exsanguis adj. = bloodless.

213.primum adv. = first.

214.??serpens uterque.  W has 'the two serpents';  we seem to have a singular subj. and plural obj. - each serpent wrapped two bodies.

215.depascor depaSCI DEPAStus sum = feed on.  Implico 1. = hem in.  artus artus m. = joint, pl. = body.  Morsus morsus m. = bite, grip.  (morsu not supine of mordeo, since feed on so as to bite is nonsense).

216.post ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem

217.corripiunt spirisque ligant ingentibus;  et iam

218.bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circum

219.terga dati superant capite et cervicibus altis.

220.ille simul manibus tendit divellere nodos

221.perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno,

222.clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit:


216.The next thing to happen was that Laocoon came, armed, to save his sons.

217-9.Both serpents fell on him and coiled their bodies all round him.  Then twice they constricted his waist, twice coiled their scaly skin round his throat, the whole head and crest of their bodies towering over him.

220-1.All the time this was happening, Laocoon, drenched in the disgusting spittle of the serpents, his sacred ribbons covered in their black venom,  had been desperately struggling to free himself.

222.And continually he raised terrified cries to the heavens,

216.auxilio/pred.dat..  subeo subire subii subitum = come to the help of (+...).

217.corripio corripere corripui correptum = seize(+...).  spira spirae f. = coil.  ligo 1. = bind, tie up.


218.squameus adj. = scaly.  circumdo+dat. = surround.  Note tmesis.  medium (eum) = him round the middle (J).  circumdati is another reflexive middle (J and P).

219.I've put crest etc. because snakes don't have necks,

219.supero 1. = rise above (+...).

??capite: only one head?  cervix cervicis f. = neck.

220.had been: plup. for perf. in historic present.

220.tendo, see 205 above, here exert oneself.  divello divellere divelli divulsum = tear apart, separate.  nodus nodi m. = knot, bond

221.perfundo perfundere perfudi perfusum = pour over, drench,  sanies saniei = serpent slaver (+...).

228.tum vero tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis

229.insinuat pavor, et scelus expendisse merentem

230.Laocoonta ferunt, sacrum qui cuspide robur

231.laeserit et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam.

232.ducendum ad sedes simulacrum orandaque divae

233.numina conclamant.

234.dividimus muros et moenia pandimus urbis.

228-9.Then it came about that a new fear crept into the panic-stricken hearts of all.

229-31.They held that Laocoon had been justly punished for his crime, since it was he who had violated the sacred wooden image with his sharpened weapon:  he had hurled the guilty spear spinning through its skin.

232-3.They all loudly called for the horse to be led to its place, and the divinity of the goddess to be acknowledged by prayer.

234.We smashed down our walls, opening up the defences of our city.

228.tremefacio, tremefacere, tremefeci, tremefactum = cause to tremble.  cunctis:possessive dat.

229. Laocoonta merentem expendisse : acc. inf. (J).

230.qui is causal (J).

231. laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum = strike, wound.

233.numina??  Maybe numina oranda = the divine attributes meet to be prayed to.

234. divido, dividere, divisi, divisum = break up (+...).

268.tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus aegris

269.incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit.

270.in somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector

271.visus adesse mihi largosque effundere fletus,

272.raptatus bigis ut quondam, aterque cruento

273.pulvere perque pedes traiectus lora tumentes.

268-9.It was the hour when that first most grateful sleep begins, and, granted by the gods, spreads over weary mortals.

270-1.Picture then how, in a dream, appeared to me, before my eyes, a grim and sorrowful vision of Hector, weeping and weeping. 

272-3.He was black with dust and blood, as when he had been dragged behind the chariot, with leather straps piercing his swollen feet.

(268-317 is in JK .46)

268.quies quietis f. = repose.  

269.gratus adj. = pleasing, causing joy.  (I use the archaic grateful).   serpo, serpere, serpsi, serptum intr. = creep, spread slowly.

270.maestus adj. = sorrowful, afflicted.

272. rapto, raptare, raptavi, raptatum = drag violently off.   biga bigae  f. = pair of horses, or, in pl., chariot. (from biiugus).   cruentis adj. = bleeding, gory.

273. traicio, traicere, trajeci, trajectum =

transport,  pierce, transfix.   lorum lori n. = leather strap.  J & P both note the ‘middle’, but why not pedes traiectus = ‘pierced as to the feet’??  But then how does lora work??

304.in segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris

305.incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens

306.sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores

307.praecipitesque trahit silvas: stupet inscius alto

308.accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor.

304-5,8.rather as does a shepherd when he hears, from the high peak of a rock, the sound of a fire, fanned by the raging south wind, attacking a corn field. 

305-7.Or the sound of a torrential mountain river, spreading over fields, flooding over the crops (rich as they are, from the work of men and beasts), sweeping trees headlong down. 

307-8.The shepherd, struck dumb, does not know, up on his rock, what is happening.

304.veluti adv. = as though.  furo furere intr. = rage.

305. incido, incidere, incidi, incasus = fall upon, assail.

(306: the a of agros scans light. J.77.1.)

306.satus adj. = sprung from (sero) – but usu. with abl.??   laetus adj. = rich, fruitful (see Georgics 1.1).

307.praeceps praecipitis adj. = headlong.

309.tum vero manifesta fides, Danaumque patescunt

310.insidiae.  iam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam

311.Volcano superante domus, iam proximus ardet

312.Ucalegon;  Sigea igni freta lata relucent.

313.exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum.

314.arma amens capio;  nec sat rationis in armis,

315.sed glomerare manum bello et concurrere in arcem

316.cum sociis ardent animi;  furor iraque mentem

317.praecipitat, pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis.

309-10.But now, certainly, clear proof was before us, and Greek trickery showed itself. 

310-12Deiphobus’s splendid house fell in ruins, overcome by fire;  next door blazed Ucalegon’s.  All the wide waters round Sigevum shone with the flames.

313.There arose the hubbub of men and the blare of trumpets.

314. I was frantic, and seized my weapons; there was no adequate reason for this,

315-6.but my very soul burned with the desire to assemble a war-band and rush to the citadel with my comrades. 

316-7.Fury and rage destroyed my reason, and it came to me that it was a beautiful thing to die sword in hand.

309.manifestus adj. (manifesto) = plain, clear.   patesco patescere intr. = become evident.

310.insidiae f.pl. =lit. ambush, =fig. trickery.

312.fretum freti n. = sea, straits.   reluceo relucere reluxi = shine out.

313. exorior, exoriri, exortus sum = spring up, begin.

(314-7 were set for TMA04).

314.amens amentis = out of one’s mind.  sat == satis.

315.glomero 1. tr. = gather together.

316.animi : pl. for sing. (J).

317.praecipito 1. tr. = bring to ruin, destroy.  ??Why not plural verb?   succurro, succurrere, succucurri, succursum = run to the aid of, succour, but here succurrit impersonal, with acc. and inf. = it occurs to one.

347.quos ubi confertos audere in proelia vidi,

348.incipio super his:  ‘iuvenes, fortissima frustra

349.pectora, si vobis audendi extrema cupido

350.certa sequi, quae sit rebus fortuna videtis;

351.excessere omnes adytis arisque relictis

352.di quibus imperium hoc steterat; succurritis urbi

353.incensae: moriamur et in media arma ruamus.

354.una salus victis nullam sperare salutem.’

347-8.Once I had reviewed the company, ranked in close order and eager to fight, I began to rouse them still further, with these words:

348-50.”Soldiers of Troy, the efforts of your great, brave, hearts have so far been in vain;  if now you have the steadfast purpose of following me, to show our bravery to the end – well, you see the state our affairs are in: 

351-2.the gods have gone,  all their shrines and altars abandoned – those gods on whom our state and power had rested. 

352-3.You are now eagerly going to fight for a city already vanquished – so, let us resolve to die, let us charge right into the heart of the fighting.

354.The one hope of the conquered is to hope for nothing.”

347.confertus adj. = (troops)in close order, crowded. : quos confertos audere acc. inf.348.super adv. = in addition (J,P).349 : audendi extrema = to the limit of bravery.   cupido certa : a sure desire.??How does cupido work?  abl.?

355.sic animis iuvenum furor additus.  inde, lupi ceu

356.raptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris

357.exegit caecos rabies catulique relicti

358.faucibus exspectant siccis, per tela, per hostes

359.vadimus haud dubiam in mortem mediaeque tenemus

360.urbis iter; nox atra cava circumvolat umbra.

361.quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando

362.explicet aut possit lacrimis aequare labores?

355.The blind rage in the mens’ souls grew as they heard my words.

355-8.We were like desperate, plundering wolves:  wolves, blind in dense fog, whom raging hunger  had driven from their homes, their milk-starved young abandoned and waiting.

358-60.We rushed through the enemy, disregarding their weapons, never doubting we should die, making our way to the centre of the city.   Black night enclosed us with a protective shadow.

361-2.Could anyone unfold the disastrous events of that night?  Could he speak of all the deaths?  Could he possibly have tears to match the troubles?

355.ceu adv. = just as, like.356.raptor raptoris m. = plunderer.  ater atra atrum adj. = black.   improbus adj. = reckless, uncontrollable : long note in P, absence of all restraint.   venter ventris m. = belly.357. exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum  = drive out.   rabies rabiei f. = madness.   catulus catuli m. = cub, puppy.359.vado vadere vasi = advance, rush.360.circumvolo 1. = encircle.361.clades cladis f. = defeat.   funus funeris n. = funeral, death.   for fari fatus sum = speak;  gerund fandus.362.??case of lacrimis?

752.principio muros obscuraque limina portae,

753.qua gressum extuleram, repeto et vestigia retro

754.observata sequor per noctem et lumine lustro:

755.horror ubique animo, simul ipsa silentia terrent.

756.inde domum, si forte pedem, si forte tulisset,

757.me refero:  inruerant Danai et tectum omne tenebant.

758.ilicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento

759.volvitur;  exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad auras.

752-4.To start with, I had reached the walls, and the dark doorway of the city gate.  Here I looked round for my route, retracing my steps,  peering intently in the darkness.

755.Fear filled my mind, and the echoing silences were terrifying.

756-7.Next I went back to the house, in the hope, the desperate hope, that she might have gone there.

757.But the Greeks had forced their way in, and were in possession of the whole place.

758-9.It was all over: the greedy flames were carried by the wind right up to the very top of the house. 

759.Fire triumphs, and the fierce heat rises to the skies.

752.limen liminis n. = threshold, entrance.

753.gressus gressus m. = step.   effero, efferre, extuli, elatum = raise, carry out.  (I guess gressum effero = bring one’s steps to, reach??).

754 : lumen fig. = eye.   lustro 1. = scan, survey (+...).

755 : P prints animos.

756.se refero = return (carry back oneself).

757. inruo, inruere, inrui, inrutum tr. = force a way into.   tectum tecti n. = roof, house.

758.ilicet interj. = it’s over.   edax edacis adj. = greedy.

759. volvo, volvere, volvi, volutum = roll, bring around.   exsupero 1. = overtop.   furo furere = rage, rave.