Text from Jordan, Thursday, 14 June 2007.    P and J in column 3 denote T E Page  and  R H Jordan.  JK denotes W F Jackson Knight.  W denotes David West.  Q denotes structure headings from a work of Kenneth Quinn, kindly posted by Margaret Hilditch.



Q:  1-13: Introduction


1.conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant.

2. inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto:

3.‘infandum, regina, iubes renovare dolorem,

4.Troianas ut opes et lamentabile regnum

5.eruerint Danai, quaeque ipse miserrima vidi

6.et quorum pars magna fui, quis talia fando

7.Myrmidonum Dolopumne aut duri miles Vlixi

8.temperet a lacrimis? et iam nox umida caelo

9.praecipitat suadentque cadentia sidera somnos.

1-2.Everyone fell silent, each keeping his gaze on  the leader Aeneas, who began thus from his high place:

3-6. “Majesty, you insist that I re-live the unspeakable pain suffered when the Greeks took and ransacked the forlorn city of Troy.  I was a witness to this dreadful event, and indeed took a large part in it myself.

6-8.Is there anyone who would not weep when speaking of such a thing?  Even a Myrmidon, or a Dolopian?  Even a soldier marching with the implacable Ulysses?

8-9.Now, night is already descending from the damp sky, and the wheeling constellations urge us to sleep.

1. intentus: J gives it as an adjective, eager.  P suggests it is an active ‘reflexive middle’, as here.

2. ordior, ordiri, orsus sum = rise.


4-5: I use took and ransack to separate the ‘eruerint’ of the city and its riches.

6.fando : abl. gerund, in saying.


7: Myrmidonum, Dolopum gen. pl. J.102.


9: wheeling for falling, I don’t see how the falling (setting?) of the stars would work??

10. sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros

11.et breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem,

12.quamquam animus meminisse horret luctuque refugit,

13.incipiam.    ...


10-13.But, if you have a great yen to know the details of our fate, and to hear a short account of Troy’s death agony:  then, although my very soul shudders, and shrinks from the grief brought on by the memory, in spite of this I shall begin:




Q: 14-39 The Horse Inspected


13.   ...             fracti bello fatisque repulsi

14.ductores Danaum tot iam labentibus annis

15.instar montis equum divina Palladis arte

16.aedificant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas;

17.votum pro reditur simulant;  ea fama vagatur.

18.huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim

19.includunt caeco lateri penitusque cavernas

20.ingentes uterumque armato milite complent

13-14.The Greek leaders had become demoralised by the war, and felt out of favour with the gods, as so many years slipped away.

15-17.Helped by the supernatural skills of Pallas Athene, they made a huge horse, high as a hill, with sawn pine wood lacing its ribs.  They pretended this was a votive offering, against their return, and that story was put about.

18-20.But in fact they enclosed a select body of picked men, secretly, deep within huge chambers behind its blank exterior.  They filled its womb with an armed band of soldiers


21.est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama

22.insula, dives opum Priami dum regna manebant,

23.nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis:

24:huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt.

25.Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas.

26.ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu:

27.panduntur portae, iuvat ire et Dorica castra

28.desertosque videre locos litusque relictum:

29.hic Dolopum manus, hic saevus tendebat Achilles;

30.classibus hic locus, hic acie certare solebant.


21-24.From Troy can be seen the world-famous island of Tenedos.  While Priam was king it was prosperous;  now it is just a bay, and an unreliable harbour.   Here the Greeks had journeyed, and settled on the lonely shore.

25-26.  To us it seemed they had at last departed, sailing the wind for Greece, and thus each and every one of us felt himself freed from the long sadness we had endured.

27-30.The gates were thrown open, we were all happy to go and see the Greek camp, the abandoned sites, and the solitary shore.   “Here was the Dolopian contingent”, we’d say, “Here the fierce Achilles used to live, here stood their ships, and here they were accustomed to fight in line of battle”


24:provecti past in historic present narrative, so maybe pluperfect.


25.ratus pp. of reor, think.


26.Teucria luctu = our (Trojan) trouble

30.certo 1. = contend, fight, struggle.

31.pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae

32.et molem mirantur equi; primusque Thymoetes

33.duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari,

34.sive dolo seu iam Troiae sic fata ferebant.

35.at Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti,

36.aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona

37.praecipitare iubent subiectisve urere flammis

38.aut terebrare cavas uteri et temptare latebras.

39.scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus.

31-34.One group of us was amazed at the horse,  a deadly gift of chaste Minerva, and these people were staggered by its sheer size.  Thymoetes was the first to urge that it should be dragged within our walls and set up on the citadel;  this may have been his treachery, or perhaps now the gods were thus deciding Troy’s destiny.

35.But Capys and others had a more sensible view:  they suggested that this trap of the Greeks, this admired ‘gift’, be thrown into the sea, or have a fire set under it to reduce it to ashes;  alternatively, holes should be drilled in its sides so as to probe its vitals.

39.The crowd was undecided, split into opposing factions.

31.stupeo –ere –ui (+acc.) = be amazed at. innuptus –a –um = ‘ever maiden’ (P).  exitialis = fatal.

32.moles –is f. = mass.  Thymoetes’s wife & daughter had been killed by Priam, so, as P puts it, he ‘had a grudge against’ him.

33.loco –are vt. = place.

35.J:supply ei and est for quorum & menti – those whose mindset...

36.pelagus –i n. = sea.  insidiae –arum f. = ambush, stratagem.

37.subicio –ire ieci iectum vt.= place underneath.  uro –ere ussi ustum. vt. = burn.

38.terebro – are vt. = bore.

tempto –are vt. = test. (perhaps probe for with spears through the holes – J.)

39.scindo –ere scidi scissum vt. = split, divide.  incertus –a –um = uncertain.  studium –i n. = faction.  vulgus –i n. = the common people.


Q: 40-56 Laocoon A


40.primus ibi ante omnes magna comitante caterva

41.Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,

42.et procul ‘o miseri, quae tanta insania, cives?

43.creditis avectos hostes?  aut ulla putatis

44.dona carere dolis Danaum?  sic notus Ulixes?

45.aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi,

46.aut haec in nostros fabricata est machina muros,

47.inspectura domos venturaque desuper urbi,

48.aut aliquis latet error;  equo ne credite Teucri.

49.quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes,’

40-41.Then we saw Laocoon, eagerly running down from the top of the citadel, at the head of a large crowd, to where the horse stood.  While still a long way off he was heard saying

42-49.”You dimwits!  Can you credit such crazy things?  Do you think the enemy have gone?  Do you suppose that any gift of the Greeks is given without some trick?  Does the devious Ulysses behave thus?  Or maybe there are hidden Greeks, shut up in this wood.  Or is this a machine made to penetrate our walls?  To look down on our homes or to come down upon the city?  Or some other hidden peril?  Trojans, do not trust in this horse.  Whatever it is, I fear those Greeks, especially when they offer gifts.”

40.comito 1. = accompany.  caterva ‑ae f. = crowd.

40.ibi: to where the horse stood

41.ardeo ardere arsi arsum = burn, be fired.  decurro = run down from

43.aveho –ere –exi –ectum = carry away, passive = travel.  Supply esse for acc.inf. after creditis.

44.careo –ere –ui –itum (+abl.) = be without.  notus –a –um = known, notorious

50.sic fatus validis ingentem viribus hastam

51.in latus inque feri curvam compagibus alvum

52.contorsit.  stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso

53.insonuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavernae.

54.et, si fata deum, si mens non laeva fuisset,

55.impulerat ferro Argolicas foedare latebras,

56.Troiaque nunc staret, Priamique arx alta maneres.


50-52.Thus Laocoon spoke, then took a massive spear and hurled it at the horse.  Vigorously thrown, the spear entered spinning into the flank, and penetrated the beast’s curved, jointed belly.

52-53.The spear stuck fast, thrumming, and the beast’s womb was struck hard, so that its vaulted chambers gave out a groan which echoed and resounded.

54-55.Then, if only the gods had been with us, if our souls had not been ill-omened:  then had Laocoon driven us to use our swords to make mincemeat of those hidden Greeks.

56.Then Troy would still be standing;  and you, high citadel of Priam, would be with us yet.

51.compages –is f. = joint, framework

52.contorqueo –quere –si –tum = discharge with a rotatory movement.

52.recutio –ire –ussi –ussum = strike so as to cause to vibrate.  See Page.

54.laevus adj. = generally inauspicious etc.

55.foedo 1. = wound savagely, mutilate.

  JK differs from others, including his
  pupil Day Lewis, in saying that
Laocoon might have done the killing.


Q: 57-198 Sinon A, B, C


57.ecce, manus iuvenem interea post terga revinctum

58.pastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant

59.Dardanidae, qui se ignotum venientibus ultro,

60.hoc ipsum ut strueret Troiamque aperiret Achivis,

61.obtulerat, fidens animi atque in utrumque paratus,

62.seu versare dolos seu certae occumbere morti.

57-58.And then we saw a young man, hands tied behind his back;  some of our shepherds, making a lot of noise, were hustling him along towards the king. 

59-62The unknown youth had freely given himself up to them as they approached, as part of his plan to open Troy to the Greeks.  He was full of self-confidence, and ready for either of two outcomes:  his ruse might succeed, but otherwise he would certainly suffer death.

58. revincio, -ire, inxi, inctum = fasten

59.ultro adv. = of his own accord

60.struo -ere -uxi –uctum = devise, cause, plot.

62.verso 1. = achieve a desired outcome, OLD.2040.2.1.  Maybe like turning a trick.  Page says’ to practise shifts and wiles’.  No note in J, vocab gives carry on.

62.occumbo –ere –cubui –cubitum = (here) succumb to.


63.undique videndi studio Troiana iuventus

64.circumfusa ruit certantque inludere capto.

65.accipe nunc Danaum insidias et crimine ab uno

66.disce omnes.

67.namque ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis,

68.constitit atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit:

63-64.Trojan young people hurried from all directions, crowding round, eager to see what was going on;  they vied with each other in making fun of the prisoner. 

65-66.Hear now of the Greek treachery, and, from the example of this criminal, learn what they are all like:

67-68.So there he was, the centre of attention, looking confused and defenceless.  He stood stock-still as he looked round, his eyes flickering along the Trojan ranks.

63.studium –i n. = enthusiasm;  here lit. with enthusiasm for seeing.  iuventus ‑tutis f. = youth.

64.circumfundo –undere –udi –usum = pour round;  passive = crowd round.

67.turbo 1. = disturb, confuse.  inermis adj. = defenceless.

68.consto –are –iti –atum = stand firm.  This line is slowed down by the unusual penultimate spondee circum.(J and P).

69.’heu, quae me tellus’ inquit ‘quae me aequora possunt

70.accipere?  aut quid iam misero mihi denique restat,

71.cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus, et super ipsi

72.Dardanidae infensi poenas cum sanguine poscunt?’

73.quo gemitu conversi animi compressus et omnis

74.impetus.  hortamur fari quo sanguine cretus,

75.quidve ferat;  memoret quae sit fiducia capto.

69-72.“Is there any country” he said sadly “or any bit of ground, even, that could claim me for its own?  Or what now should a ruined person like me actually do?  There is no place for me with the Greeks any more, and on top of that you Trojans are my enemies, demanding my life as a penalty”.

73-74.Our hearts were touched by this sad speech, and every vengeful thought suppressed.

74-75.  We pressed him to say what race he was, what he was up to, to say what gave him, a prisoner, the confidence to speak.

69.aequor –oris n. = level plain, sea.

72.infensus adj. = hostile.

73.comprimo –ere –essi –essum = check, restrain.

74.impetus –us m. = impulse or psssion of mind.

76 to 144 omitted.

(Sinon’s speech)


145.his lacrimis vitam damus et miserescimus ultro.

146.ipse viro primus manicas atque arta levari

147.vincla iubet Priamus dictisque ita fatur amicis:

148.‘quisquis es (amissos hinc iam obliviscere Graios)

149.noster eris;  mihique haec edissere vera roganti:

150.quo molem hanc immanis equi statuere?  quis auctor?

151.quidve petunt?  quae religio?  aut quae machina belli?’

145.We spared his life because of his tearful speech;  indeed, we felt compassion for him.

146-149.Priam himself spoke first, ordering the man’s hands freed, and his tight bonds to be loosed..  Priam then spoke these friendly words to him: “Forget those Greeks you have abandoned;  from now on you are one of our own;  give me truthful answers to the following questions I now put to you :

150-151.What made them build this massive structure, this enormous horse?  Whose idea was it?  What did they hope to achieve?  Is it some sort of holy object?  Or an engine of war of some kind?”

146.manicae –arum f. = bonds, handcuffs.  artus adj. = tight.

148.obliviscere: dep.imperative.

149.edissere imperative of edissero, edisserere, edisserui, edissertus = explain.  vera used as adverb.  Noted by J, not by P.

150.immanis adj. = huge.  statuo –uere
-ui –uitum
= set up, erect.

152.dixerat.  ille dolis instructus et arte Pelasga

153.sustulit exutas vinclis ad sidera palmas:

154.'vos aeterni ignes, et non violabile vestrum

155.testor numen,’ ait, ‘vos arae ensesque nefandi,

156.quos fugi, vittaeque deum, quas hostia gessi:

157.fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere iura,

158.fas odisse viros atque omnia ferre sub auras,

159.si qua tegunt;  teneor patriae nec legibus ullis.

152-153.Sinon was well trained in the Greek art of deception, and, when Priam had finished speaking, he began by raising his  hands, now free of their bonds, to the heavens:

154-156.“I call you, eternal celestial fires”, he said,  “I call your unchallengeable divinity . And I call you, those infamous altars and weapons which I fled;  and I call you, the holy ribbons I wore as a victim;  I call you all to bear witness to the truth of my words:

157-159.”In the sight of the gods it is right for me to forswear my sacred oaths to the Greeks.  It is right for me to hate the Greeks, and to bring into the open all things, whatever they are, that they wish to keep secret.  Nor am I bound by the laws of my native land.

153.exuo  -uere –ui utum = put off.

155.testor –ari –atus sum = call to witness.

158.fero sub auras = bring into the open (aura –ae f. = wind, breath of air).

159.tego –ere texi tectum = conceal.  si quis = whoever.

160.tu modo promissis maneas servataque serves

161.Troia fidem, si vera feram, si magna rependam.

162.omnis spes Danaum et coepti fiducia belli

163.Palladis auxiliis semper stetit.  impius ex quo

164.Tydides sed enim scelerumque inventor Ulixes

165.fatale adgressi sacrato avellere templo

166.Palladium caesis summae custodibus arcis

167.corripuere sacram effigiem manibusque cruentis

168.virgineas ausi divae contingere vittas:

160-161.”Troy, I urge you merely to keep your word.  And, since you have been delivered, to keep faith with me, your deliverer - so long as you find I tell the truth, and that I amply repay your kindness.

162-163.”Now, every Greek ambition has always rested on the help of Athene, and from her came the confidence to start this war.

163-168.But then Diomedes, with Ulysses (a man who actually invented new crimes) committed a sacrilegious act:  they tried to wrench away the numinous Palladium from Athene’s holy temple, having first cut down the guards at the top of the citadel.  They laid their bloodstained hands on that holy image, daring to pollute the goddess’s maidenly ribbons.

160.promissum –i n. = promise.  promissis manere =  abide by promises (J and P).

161.J notes feram and rependam as fut., but might they be pres.subj.?  P is silent.

165.avello –ere avulsi avulsum = tear away by force.

167. corripio –ere –ui –eptum = snatch up, seize.  cruentus adj. = bloodstained. contingo –ere contigi contactum = touch


169.ex illo fluere ac retro sublapsa referri

170.spes Danaum, fractae vires, aversa deae mens.

171.nec dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris.

172.vix positum castris simulacrum:arsere coruscae

173.luminibus flammae arrectis, salsusque per artus

174.sudor iit, terque ipsa solo (mirabile dictu)

175.emicuit parmamque ferens hastamque trementem.


169-70.”From that high-water mark, the fortunes of the Greeks slowly ebbed away.  Their power was shattered, the goddess turned herself from them.

171.Athene showed her displeasure in the form of marvellous and unmistakeable manifestations.

172-4.The moment her statue had been placed in the camp, the eyes became animated; shining flames flashed from them, and salt sweat ran down the body.

174-5.(a)Then, three times, the statue – and this is truly a wonder – leaned forward from her base, holding her shield and brandishing her spear.

174-5.(b)Then, three times, the goddess herself – and this is truly a wonder – sprang out from the ground, holding her shield and brandishing her spear.


169.fluo –ere –xi –xum = flow.  retro adv. = backwards.  sublabor –bi –psus sum = sink down, glide away.  referro ‑ferre ‑ttuli –latum  (a rich set of meanings, here= carry back).

170.averto –tere –ti -sum = turn aside, avert.

171.dubius adj. = doubtful, here agreeing with monstris.  monstrum –i n. = portent, wonder.

172.ardeo –dere –si –sum = be on fire, shine.  coruscus adj. = shining.

173.lumen –inis n. = light, eyearrigo –igere ‑exi –ectum = raise, animate.

174.solum –i n. = earth, ground.

175.emico –are -ui –atum = spring out, stretch forth.  parma –ae f. = shield.  tremo ‑ere –ui = shake, tremble, quiver.


174-5.  (a) follows WJK and Day‑Lewis, (b) follows W and P.  See also JSTOR search for terque ipsa solo.


Note: I thought brandishing because since the hastam is trementem (intransitive), someone must be shaking it, and hastamque vibrans would  not fit.


176.extemplo tentanda fuga canit aequora Calchas,

177.nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis

178.omina ni repetant Argis numenque reducant

179.quod pelago et curvis secum avexere carinis.

180.et nunc quod patrias vento petiere Mycenas,

181.arma deosque parant comites pelagoque remenso

182.improvisi aderunt.  ita digerit omina Calchas.

176-7.”Calchas then prophesied, saying that an immediate flight by sea should be attempted, since at present it would not be possible for Greek arms to conquer Troy. 

178-9.He said  they must first seek new auspices in Argos, returning the sacred statue they had taken away with them as they sailed the seas in their clean‑lined vessels.

180.And so, now, they have sailed with the wind to Agamemnon's Mycenae.

181-2.There they will forge new weapons, and get the gods on their side once again.  Thence will they once more take to the seas,  and  appear here, taking you by surprise.   Calchas recommended these actions in response to the omens.


176.extemplo adv. = immediately. 

177.exsci'ndo -ndere -di -issum = extirpate.

178. ni = nisinumen numinis n. = divinity, the god himself, or an attribute, here the statue.

179.aveho avehere avexi avectum = carry away (in passive ride away, like transvehor in the Catullus).

181.remetior, remetiri, remensus sum = go back over.

182. improvisus adj. = unexpected.  aderunt fut. of adsumdigero digere digessi digestum = distribute, set out, interpret.

183.hanc pro Palladio moniti, pro numine laeso

184.effigiem statuere, nefas quae triste piaret.

185.hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem

186.roboribus textis caeloque educere iussit,

187.ne recipi portis aut duci in moenia posset,

188.neu populum antiqua sub religione tueri.

183-4.”Acting on this advice, the Greeks erected this structure so as to atone for the sacrilege, for the damage done to the Palladium and for the insult to the goddess.

185-6.Calchas absolutely insisted that they build it to this massive size, of carefully‑fitted oak planks, and towering to the skies.

187-8.This was so that it could not be taken through the gates or brought to the ramparts,  and thus the people would not gain the protection afforded by established religion.

184.nefas n. (indecl.) = sacrilege.  pio 1. = worship, atone for.  quae piaret is a purpose clause.

185.attollo, attollere = lift up, build, exalt.  tamen = emphatic.

186.robur, roboris n. = oak, wood (many other meanings).  texto textere textui textum = weave, carefully construct.  educo educere eduxi eductum = usually to bring up, as a child, but here raise, erect.

188.neu = neve conj.= and not, neither.

189. nam si vestra manus violasset dona Minervae,

190.tum magnum exitium (quod di prius omen in ipsum

191.convertant!) Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum;

192.sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem,

193.ultro Asiam magno Pelopea ad moenia bello

194.venturam et nostros ea fata manere nepotes'

189-91.”Calchas went on to say that, if your warriors should do violence to this Minervan votive, then hideous destruction (the former portent of which may the gods turn onto that man himself!) will rain down on  Priam's empire, and on all Trojans.

192-4.But on the other hand,  if you got the horse with your own hands into your city, not only would you be safe, but all Asia would come with mighty force in war against the Greek defences;  and that would seal the fate of future generations of Greeks.”

(This is the end of Sinon's speech)

189.violo 1. = violate, dishonour.

190.exitium -i n. = destruction, ruin, subj. of futurum (esse, part of acc. inf. with implied dicit).

192.sin conj. = but if, if on the contrary.

194.lit. “that our descendants would abide in that destiny.”

190 & 194.  acc. infs. exitium futurum (esse) and (Asiam venturam esse) are in the reported speech of Calchas




Q: 199-233  Laocoon B


195.talibus insidiis periurique arte Sinonis

196.credita res, captique dolis lacrimaeque coactis

197.quos neque Tydides nec Larissaeus Achilles

198.non anni domuere decem, non mille carinae.

199.hic aliud maius miseris multoque tremendum

200.obicitur magis atque improvida pectora turbat.

201.Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte Sacerdos,

202.sollemnes taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.

(Aeneas resumes direct narrative)

195-196.We believed this tale, thanks to the contrivance and skill of the lying Sinon. 

196-8.And so our people, whom neither Diomedes nor Achilles could conquer, not in ten years of war, not with their fleet of a thousand ships:  this people went down, defeated by trickery and feigned tears: 

199-200.But another occurrence, very much more terrifying, now unhappily pressed  urgently for our attention, and threw our unprepared hearts into turmoil.

201.Laocoon (he in fact was a priest chosen by lot to serve Neptune)

202.was at his customary altar, in the process of sacrificing a kingly bull.

195.insidiae –arum f. = ambush, stratagem.  perjurus adj. = lying.

196.cogo cogere coegi coactum = collect, compel, forceforced tears.

198.domo domare domui domitum = tame, conquer.

199.hic = at this point (of time).  tremendus adj. = terrible.

200.obicio obicere objeci objectum = set before, expose, present.  improvidus adj. = thoughtless, unprepared.

201.ductus sorte = drawn by lot. 

201.I choose the bracketed phrase he in fact... because L is a well-established character whose profession is now relevant.

202.macto 1. = sacrifice.

202.elision in  taur(um) ingent... but not in ingentem mact...

203.ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta

204.(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues

205.incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litera tendunt;

206.pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque

207.sanguineae superant undas;  pars cetera pontum

208.pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.

203-5.And then - a dreadful sight, that even now is making my flesh creep as I recall it,  appeared before our eyes.  Through the calm deep sea, coming from the direction of Tenedos, a pair of serpents, their bodies forming great arches on the water, were making, side by side, for the shore.

206-7.Each crest was standing proud as it went through the water, and each blood-stained mane towered above the waves.

207-8.Behind these the rest of the creatures stretched back over the sea, their massively long backs curved into folds.

204.orbis orbis m. = ring, circle.

205.incumbo incumbere incumbi incumbitum = recline on.  tendo tendere tetendi tentum/tensum = spread, pitch(tent), aim, tend.(rich set of meanings).

206. iuba iubae f. = mane, crest.  pectus pectoris n. = breast.  fluctus fluctus m. = wave.  arrigo arrigere arrexi arrectum = set upright, stand on end.

207.pontus ponti m. = sea.  pars cetera = remaining part, i.e. the rest of the creatures.

208. pone prep. + acc. = behind.  lego legere legi lectum = traverse.   sinuo 1. trans. = wind, curve.

209.fit sonitus spumante salo;  iamque arva tenebant

210.ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguini et igni

211.sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.

212.diffugimus visu exsangues.  illi agmine certo

213.Laoconta petunt;  et primum parva duorum

214.corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque

215.implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus;

209-10.We heard the noise of the foaming sea, and then they were on land, their eyes gleaming, suffused with blood and fire; 

211.they were hissing, and their flickering tongues played round their mouths.

212-3.The blood drained from our faces at the sight, and we scattered in panic.  On they came, looking like a steady column of soldiers, heading for Laocoon.

213-5.First, each of the serpents grasped the body of one of Laocoon's two sons and wrapped him round, chewing at his poor little body, eating it. 

209.sonitus sonitus m. = noise, loud sound.  spumo 1. = foam.  salum sali n. = sea.  arvum arvi n. = land.

210.suffecti: I don't understand P's idea that this is another active reflexive middle;  the eyes are not suffusing themselves, but are being suffused, a true passive  If only one could ask him.  I follow J and  the acc. of respect: suffused with blood and fire as to the eyes.

211.lambo lambere lambi = lick.

212.visu is not a supine, but from visus visus m. = vision.  exsanguis adj. = bloodless.

213.primum adv. = first.

214.??serpens uterque.  W has 'the two serpents';  we seem to have a singular subj. and plural obj. - each serpent wrapped two bodies.

215.depascor depaSCI DEPAStus sum = feed on.  Implico 1. = hem in.  artus artus m. = joint, pl. = body.  Morsus morsus m. = bite, grip.  (morsu not supine of mordeo, since feed on so as to bite is nonsense).

216.post ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem

217.corripiunt spirisque ligant ingentibus;  et iam

218.bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circum

219.terga dati superant capite et cervicibus altis.

220.ille simul manibus tendit divellere nodos

221.perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno,

222.clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit:


216.The next thing to happen was that Laocoon came, armed, to save his sons.

217-9.Both serpents fell on him and coiled their bodies all round him.  Then twice they constricted his waist, twice coiled their scaly skin round his throat, the whole head and crest of their bodies towering over him.

220-1.All the time this was happening, Laocoon, drenched in the disgusting spittle of the serpents, his sacred ribbons covered in their black venom,  had been desperately struggling to free himself.

222.And continually he raised terrified cries to the heavens,

216.auxilio/pred.dat..  subeo subire subii subitum = come to the help of (+...).

217.corripio corripere corripui correptum = seize(+...).  spira spirae f. = coil.  ligo 1. = bind, tie up.


218.squameus adj. = scaly.  circumdo+dat. = surround.  Note tmesis.  medium (eum) = him round the middle (J).  circumdati is another reflexive middle (J and P).

219.I've put crest etc. because snakes don't have necks,

219.supero 1. = rise above (+...).

??capite: only one head?  cervix cervicis f. = neck.

220.had been: plup. for perf. in historic present.

220.tendo, see 205 above, here exert oneself.  divello divellere divelli divulsum = tear apart, separate.  nodus nodi m. = knot, bond

221.perfundo perfundere perfudi perfusum = pour over, drench,  sanies saniei = serpent slaver (+...).

223.qualis mugitus, fugit cum saucius aram

224.taurus et incertam excussit cervice securim.

225.at gemini lapsi delubra ad summa dracones

226.effugiunt saevaeque petunt Tritonidis arcem,

227.sub pedibusque deae clipeique sub orbe teguntur.

223-4.like the bellowing of a bull merely wounded, as it runs from the altar after an inexpert stroke, shaking out the axe buried in its neck.

225-7.And now the two serpents fled away, slithering up to our highest holy places, searching out the citadel of Athene, our destroyer.  Placing themselves by the feet of the goddess, they were made invisible, under the circle of her shield.

223.mugitus mugitus m. = bellowing.  saucius adj. = wounded.  224.incertus  adj. = uncertain, unsure.  excutio, excutere, excussi, excussus = shake off or out.  cervix cervicis f. = neck.  securis securis f. = axe, death-blow.  225.lapsus lapsus m. = sliding.  delubrum delubri n. = sanctuary.

226.effugiunt: I don't like escape, the serpents were not in custody.

227.clipeus clipei m. = round bronze shield.  tego tegere texi tectum = conceal.


Q: 234-49 The Horse Admitted.


228.tum vero tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis

229.insinuat pavor, et scelus expendisse merentem

230.Laocoonta ferunt, sacrum qui cuspide robur

231.laeserit et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam.

232.ducendum ad sedes simulacrum orandaque divae

233.numina conclamant.

234.dividimus muros et moenia pandimus urbis.

228-9.Then it came about that a new fear crept into the panic-stricken hearts of all.

229-31.They held that Laocoon had been justly punished for his crime, since it was he who had violated the sacred wooden image with his sharpened weapon:  he had hurled the guilty spear spinning through its skin.

232-3.They all loudly called for the horse to be led to its place, and the divinity of the goddess to be acknowledged by prayer.

234.We smashed down our walls, opening up the defences of our city.

228.tremefacio, tremefacere, tremefeci, tremefactum = cause to tremble.  cunctis:possessive dat.

229.pavor pavoris m. = fear, panic.

229. Laocoonta merentem expendisse : acc. inf. (J).

230.qui is causal (J).

231. laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum = strike, wound.

233.numina??  Maybe numina oranda = the divine attributes meet to be prayed to.

234. divido, dividere, divisi, divisum = break up (+...).

235.accingunt omnes operi pedibusque rotarum

236.subiciunt lapsus, et stuppea vincula collo

237.intendunt:  scandit fatalis machina muros

238.feta armis.  pueri circum innuptaeque puellae

239.sacra canunt funemque manu contingere gaudent:

240.illa subit mediaeque minans inlabitur urbi.

235-7.Everyone got ready for the job of bringing in the horse;  they put wheels under it so it would move easily, and then pulled it by ropes of flax attached to its neck.

237-8.And so the deadly machine, bearing its armed men, climbed through our walls.

238-9.Our young men and maidens sang sacred songs and rejoiced that they were handling the rope.

240.The menacing creature came on, gliding smoothly into the heart of out city.

235. accingo, accingere, accinxi, accinctum = gird on, get ready.

235-6 : J note: lapsus rotarum = gliding wheels (lit: ‘they placed under it the glidings of wheels’).

236. subicio, subicere, subjeci, subjectum trans. = place under.   stuppeus adj. = made of tow.

236 : stuppea : the word tow is not much used now, and it means made from short fibres of flax.

237. intendo, intendere, intendi, intentum = hold out, strain, exert.

238.fetus adj. = pregnant.

239.funis funis m. = rope.

240.inlabor inlabi inlapsus sum = glide into.

241.o patria, o divum domus Ilium et incluta bello

242.moenia Dardanidum!  quater ipso in limine portae

243.substitit atque utero sonitum quater arma dedere;

244.instamus tamen immemores caecique furore

245.et monstrum infelix sacrata sistimus arce.

246.tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris

247.ora dei iussu non umquam credita Teucris.

248.nos delubra deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset

249.ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem.

241-2.My native land, my Troy, home of the gods – and your Trojan walls, famous in war!  242-3.Four times the thing lurched to a stop on the very threshold of your gate:  and four times weapons clanged in its belly.

244-5.And yet we pressed on, unmindful in our blind frenzy, until we had set up that unholy totem in our consecrated citadel.

246-7.A divine decree meant that Cassandra’s words would never be believed by the Trojans, but she did truly reveal our fate.

248-9.That day, the very last day of Troy, we misguided unfortunates spent in lavishly decorating the temples of our gods throughout the city with festive greenery.

241.inclutus adj. = renowned.

243.subsisto subsistere substiti = halt, stand.

244.insto instare institi = (OLD#8, cited) apply oneself urgently, press on with.

245. sisto, sistere, stiti, statum =  (OLD#8, cited) set up.    ‘..felix sacrata’ scans as dactyl spondee.

247.iussus iussus m. = order, command.

248.delubrum delubri n. = temple.

249.festus adj. = festive.   velo 1. = veil, cover up.   frons frondis f. = foliage, leaves.


Q: 250-67  The Attack Begins


250.vertitur interea caelum et ruit Oceano nox

251.involvens umbra magna terramque polumque

252.Myrmidonumque dolos;  fusi per moenia Teucri

253.conticuere;  sopor fessos complectitur artus.

254.et iam Argiva phalanx instructis navibus ibat

255.a Tenedo tacitae per amica silentia lunae

256.litora nota petens, flammas cum regia puppis

257.extulerat, fatisque deum defensus iniquis

258.inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim

259.laxat claustra Sinon.

250-2.And, the heavens revolved, and night descended from the ocean, wrapping earth, sky, and Greek trickery in one great shadow.

252-3.The Trojans, dispersed around the walls, fell silent as a deep sleep wrapped their tired limbs.

254-5.The Greek ships were in good order, and their army now set off in them from Tenedos, the silent moonlight in their favour.

256-9.They headed for the Trojan shore, so well known.  Once the royal ship had raised a fire-signal, Sinon, preserved by the malign will of the gods, took action:  he stealthily undid the wooden bolt, freeing the Greeks who had been shut up in the horse’s belly.

250. verto, vertere, verti, versum = turn : J:passive used to make intrans.   ruo, ruere, rui, rutum = fall.

251. involvo, involvere, involvi, involutum = cover, envelop.  polus poli m. = pole, pole-star, sky.

252. fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum = pour (passive = spread out).   artus artus = limb.

257.exferro = raise.

258. furtim adv. = stealthily.

259.laxo 1. = loosen.   claustrum claustri n. = bolt, key.

259.                                     illos patefactus ad auras

260.reddit equus, laetique cavo se robore promunt

261.Thessandrus Sthenelusque duces et dirus Vlixes,

262.demissum lapsi per funem, Acamasque Thoasque

263.Pelidesque Neoptolemus primusque Machaon

264.et Menelaus et ipse doli fabricator Epeos.

265.invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam;

266.caeduntur vigiles, portisque patentibus omnes

267.accipiunt socios atque agmina conscia iungunt.

259-60.The horse, opened up, restored the Greeks to the fresh air – and glad they were to bring themselves into the light, from their wooden cell. 

261-4.Down a rope slid the leaders Thessandrus and Sthelenus, and the horrible Ulysses.  Then Acamas, Thoas, the Pelean Neoptolemus, Machaon I, Menelaus, and then Epeos, he who was the actual maker of the horse.

265.They made their way into a city sunk in a drunken stupor.

266-7.The guards were killed, then, through the open gates, they admitted all their allies, joining forces as planned.

259. patefio, patefieri, patefactus sum = be revealed, be opened (pass. of patefacio).

260. promo, promere, prompsi, promptum = bring into view.

262.demitto = drop.

266 : J says portis patentibus is abl. abs., but maybe patens patentis adj. = open, accessible (OLD exemplar).


Q: 268-97  Hector Visits Aeneas


268.tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus aegris

269.incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit.

270.in somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector

271.visus adesse mihi largosque effundere fletus,

272.raptatus bigis ut quondam, aterque cruento

273.pulvere perque pedes traiectus lora tumentes.

268-9.It was the hour when that first most grateful sleep begins, and, granted by the gods, spreads over weary mortals.

270-1.Picture then how, in a dream, appeared to me, before my eyes, a grim and sorrowful vision of Hector, weeping and weeping. 

272-3.He was black with dust and blood, as when he had been dragged behind the chariot, with leather straps piercing his swollen feet.

(268-317 is in JK .46)

268.quies quietis f. = repose.  

269.gratus adj. = pleasing, causing joy.  (I use the archaic grateful).   serpo, serpere, serpsi, serptum intr. = creep, spread slowly.

270.maestus adj. = sorrowful, afflicted.

272. rapto, raptare, raptavi, raptatum = drag violently off.   biga bigae  f. = pair of horses, or, in pl., chariot. (from biiugus).   cruentis adj. = bleeding, gory.

273. traicio, traicere, trajeci, trajectum =

transport,  pierce, transfix.   lorum lori n. = leather strap.  J & P both note the ‘middle’, but why not pedes traiectus = ‘pierced as to the feet’??  But then how does lora work??

274.ei mihi, qualis erat, quantum mutatus ab illo

275.Hectore qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli,

276.vel Danaum Phrygios iaculatus puppibus ignes;

277.squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines

278.vulneraque illa gerens, quae circum plurima muros

279.accepit patrios.  ultro flens ipse videbar

280.compellare virum et maestas expromere voces:


274-5.What a sight he was for me:  how changed from that Hector we saw returning,  wearing the armour of Achilles;

276.or that Hector who hurled our Trojan incendiaries onto the Greek ships.

277.Here he was, his beard filthy and the hairs of his head matted with blood,

278-9.bearing the dreadful wounds his body had sustained while being dragged round our ancestral walls.

279-80.I found myself weeping involuntarily, and using my strength to cry out these sad words:

275.redeo = return, repay.   exuviae f. pl. = spoils (stripped, from exuo).   induo, induere, indui, indutum tr. = clothe, wear (note the middle, as J).  (Hector took these from Patroclus, who wore Achilles’ armour).

276.iaculor 1. dep. = throw (e.g. a javelin).  puppis puppis f. = stern, poop, of a ship.

277 squaleo 2. = be dirty.   concretus adj. (concresco) = curdled, set, matted.  crinis crinis m. = lock of hair.

278.(I follow P and J, not JK, and W is neutral, in saying the wounds thus sustained).

279.patrius adj. = ancestral.   plurimus adj. = most.

280.compello 1. tr. = call, address.    expromo, expromere, exprompsi, expromptum tr. = take out, put to use.   voces = words, in poetry.

??How does 279-80 work exactly?


281.’o lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum,

282.quae tantae tenuere morae?  quibus, Hector, ab oris

283.exspectate venis?  ut te post multa tuorum

284.funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores

285.defessi aspicimus!  quae causa indigna serenos

286.foedavit vultus?  aut cur haec vulnera cerno?’

281-2.“Hector, ah, Hector, bright star of all Troy, steadfast hope of all Trojans, what has delayed you so long? 

282-5.Eagerly awaited as you are, from what shores have you come?  How marvellous that we can at last look on you, though many of your people are dead, and we are tired out with all the work needed on the city.  

285-6.But what frightful event has so disfigured your face, and how is it that I see these wounds.

281.fidus adj. = trusty.

283 expectate : voc.

284. funus funeris n. = funeral, death.   varius adj. = various.

285.serenus adj. = clear, unclouded (often of the weather).

286.foedo 1. = pollute, disfigure.OLD#2cited.   cerno, cernere, crevi, cretum = diecsrn

287.ille nihil, nec me quaerentem vana moratur,

288.sed graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens,

289.’heu fuge, nate dea, teque his’ ait ‘eripe flammis.

290.hostis habet muros;  ruit alto a culmine Troia.

291.sat patriae Priamoque datum;  si Pergama dextra

292.defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent.

287-8.He said nothing, paid no attention to my silly questions.  With a grave face, he gave out a groan from deep within his chest and spoke thus:

289.‘Aeneas, son of Venus, this is a sad thing to say, but you must save yourself from these flames by running away.

290.The enemy is in possession of our walls. Troy is done for, her high state in ruins.

291-2.You have done everything possible for your king and country;  if our citadel could have been defended by a man’s right hand, then defended it would have been, by this one of yours.

287.non moror = pay no attention to.

288.imus adj. = inmost, deepest.

290.ruo ruere rui rutum = ruin, overthrow, run.  culmen culminis n. = summit, peak.

291.Pergama n.pl. = the citadel of Troy (J), thus possent.

292 : hac : P tells us this is a ‘deictic’ hac.  This I think means (wikipedia, not OED) not the one actually nearest the speaker’, and I have varied from P to suggest Aeneas’s alone.  J says it means Hector’s.

292. defendo, defendere, defendi, defensum = defend.


293.sacra suosque tibi commendat Troia penates;

294.hos cape fatorum comites, his moenia quaere,

295.magna pererrato statues quae denique ponto.’

296.sic ait et manibus vittas Vestamque potentem

297.aeternumque adytis effert penetralibus ignem.

293-5.’Troy gives into your hands her sacred objects and her household gods – take them, they will share your destiny.  Seek out a city for them.  You shall finally establish a great city, after wandering hither and thither over the sea’.

296-7.Thus spoke Hector, and removed, with his own hands, the eternal fire from the innermost sanctuary of her temple, with the wonderful statue of Vesta, dressed with her sacred ribbons.

294.moenia : here = city (J).   quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum = seek.

295:P puts the comma after magna, rather than after quaere above.

295. statuo, statuere, statui, statutum = establish, set up.   pererro 1. tr. = wander over.   denique adv. = finally.   ponto perrerato : abl. abs..

297.adytum adyti n. = innermost shrine of a temple.  penetralis adj. = innermost.


Q: 298-369: Aeneas-Panthus


298.diverso interea miscentur moenia luctu,

299.et magis atque magis, quamquam secreta parentis

300.Anchisae domus arboribusque obtecta recessit,

301.clarescunt sonitus armorumque ingruit horror.

302.excutior somno et summi fastigia tecti

303.ascensu supero atque arrectis auribus asto:

298-9.While this was happening the city had become more and more consumed by its various sorrows. 

299-301The grimness of events pressed closer on us, and the sounds of battle became loud, even though my father’s house was isolated, and screened by trees.

302-3.I shook myself from sleep and climbed up to the highest point of the roof.

There I stood, keenly listening,

298.misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum = mix, embroil, stir up.   moenia as 294 above.

299.secretus adj. = separate, solitary.

300. obtego, obtegere, obtexi, obtectum = cover over, conceal.

301.ingruo ingruere ingrui = advance threateningly.   claresco clarescere clarui = become clear, loud.

302. excutio, excutere, excussi, excussum = shake off.   fastigium fastigii n. = peak (+...).

303. arrigo, arrigere, arrexi, arrectum tr. = set upright, stand on end.   asto (adsto) astare astiti intr. = stand up.

304.in segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris

305.incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens

306.sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores

307.praecipitesque trahit silvas: stupet inscius alto

308.accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor.

304-5,8.rather as does a shepherd when he hears, from the high peak of a rock, the sound of a fire, fanned by the raging south wind, attacking a corn field. 

305-7.Or the sound of a torrential mountain river, spreading over fields, flooding over the crops (rich as they are, from the work of men and beasts), sweeping trees headlong down. 

307-8.The shepherd, struck dumb, does not know, up on his rock, what is happening.

304.veluti adv. = as though.  furo furere intr. = rage.

305. incido, incidere, incidi, incasus = fall upon, assail.

306. sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum = spread over, bring to the ground.

(306: the a of agros scans light.  OK because of the ‘r’, J.77.1.)

306.satus adj. = sprung from (sero) – but usu. with abl.??   laetus adj. = rich, fruitful (see Georgics 1.1).

307.praeceps praecipitis adj. = headlong.

309.tum vero manifesta fides, Danaumque patescunt

310.insidiae.  iam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam

311.Volcano superante domus, iam proximus ardet

312.Ucalegon;  Sigea igni freta lata relucent.

313.exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum.

314.arma amens capio;  nec sat rationis in armis,

315.sed glomerare manum bello et concurrere in arcem

316.cum sociis ardent animi;  furor iraque mentem

317.praecipitat, pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis.

309-10.But now, certainly, clear proof was before us, and Greek trickery showed itself. 

310-12Deiphobus’s splendid house fell in ruins, overcome by fire;  next door blazed Ucalegon’s.  All the wide waters round Sigevum shone with the flames.

313.There arose the hubbub of men and the blare of trumpets.

314. I was frantic, and seized my weapons; there was no adequate reason for this,

315-6.but my very soul burned with the desire to assemble a war-band and rush to the citadel with my comrades. 

316-7.Fury and rage destroyed my reason, and it came to me that it was a beautiful thing to die sword in hand.

309.manifestus adj. (manifesto) = plain, clear.   patesco patescere intr. = become evident.

310.insidiae f.pl. =lit. ambush, =fig. trickery.

312.fretum freti n. = sea, straits.   reluceo relucere reluxi = shine out.

313. exorior, exoriri, exortus sum = spring up, begin.

(314-7 were set for TMA04).

314.amens amentis = out of one’s mind.  sat == satis.

315.glomero 1. tr. = gather together.

316.animi : pl. for sing. (J).

317.praecipito 1. tr. = bring to ruin, destroy.  ??Why not plural verb?   succurro, succurrere, succucurri, succursum = run to the aid of, succour, but here succurrit impersonal, with acc. and inf. = it occurs to one.

318.ecce autem telis Panthus elapsus Achivum,

319.Panthus Othryades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos,

320.sacra manu victosque deos parvumque nepotem

321.ipse trahit cursuque amens ad limina tendit.

322.’quo res summa loco, Panthu?  quam prendimus arcem?’

323.vix ea fatus eram gemitu cum talia reddit:

324.’venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus

325.Dardaniae.  fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens

326.gloria Teucrorum;  ferus omnia Iuppiter Argos

327.transtulit, incensa Danai dominantur in urbe.

318-9.And now Panthus Othryades, who was a priest attached to Apollo’s citadel shrine, came into my sight, having evaded the Greek fusillade.

320-1.He was carrying his priestly equipment, and the now-conquered gods, and leading his little grandson by the hand.  In a thorough panic, he was trying to run to our threshold.

322.’Panthus’ I called to him, ‘Panthus, where is the seat of battle?  What strongpoint are we holding?’.

323.I had hardly finished speaking when he groaned and replied thus:

324-6.’The final day has come for Troy, that last hour from which there is no escape.  We Trojans now belong to the past, as does Troy itself, and all the immeasurable splendour of the Trojans.

326-7.Jupiter, in savage mood, has given everything over to the Greeks, and they now rule over our burning city.

318.telum teli n. = dart, spear.   elabor, elabi, elapsus sum = escape.

319.arx arcis f. = citadel, stronghold.

321.cursu : by running (J).

323.for, fari, fatus sum = speak.

326.ferus adj. = savage

328.arduus armatos mediis in moenibus astans

329.fundit equus victorque Sinon incendia miscet

330.insultans.  portis alii bipatentibus adsunt,

331.milia quot magnis unquam venere Mycenis;

332.obsedere alii telis angusta viarum

333.oppositis;  stat ferri acies mucrone corusco

334.stricta, parata neci;  vix primi proelia temptant

335.portarum vigiles et caeco Marte resistunt.’328.arduus armatos mediis in moenibus astans

329.fundit equus victorque Sinon incendia miscet

330.insultans.  portis alii bipatentibus adsunt,

331.milia quot magnis unquam venere Mycenis;

332.obsedere alii telis angusta viarum

333.oppositis;  stat ferri acies mucrone corusco

334.stricta, parata neci;  vix primi proelia temptant

335.portarum vigiles et caeco Marte resistunt.’

328-9.That huge horse, standing right in the middle of our defences, is even now spewing out armed warriors; 

329-30.while that Sinon, now triumphant and jeering, is there, busy making incendiaries.

330-1.Some of the enemy – thousands in fact, as many as ever arrived from Mycenae – are even now at our wide-open gates.  Others are concentrated in the narrows of our streets, their weapons at the ready.  A battle line of steel, naked swords gleaming, is there established, drawn up and ready for slaughter.  Practically the only force of ours still fighting is the front rank of the gate defenders;  they do their best, but are fighting in a blind melée.328-9.That huge horse, standing right in the middle of our defences, is even now spewing out armed warriors; 

329-30.while that Sinon, now triumphant and jeering, is there, busy making incendiaries.

330-1.Some of the enemy – thousands in fact, as many as ever arrived from Mycenae – are even now at our wide-open gates.  Others are concentrated in the narrows of our streets, their weapons at the ready.  A battle line of steel, naked swords gleaming, is there established, drawn up and ready for slaughter.  Practically the only force of ours still fighting is the front rank of the gate defenders;  they do their best, but are fighting in a blind confusion

328 arduus adj. = high, towering.   asto, astare, astiti intr. = stand upright.329. fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum tr. = pour.   misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum = mix, stir up.330.bipatens adj. = opening two ways, wide open.(331)-I omit magnis, couldn’t think how to do it.333. mucro mucronis n. = sword, point.

334.strictus adj. = tight, close.   nex necis f. = death, murder.328 arduus adj. = high, towering.   asto, astare, astiti intr. = stand upright.

329. fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum tr. = pour.   misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum = mix, stir up.

330.bipatens adj. = opening two ways, wide open.

(331)-I omit magnis, couldn’t think how to do it.

333. mucro mucronis n. = sword, point.

334.strictus adj. = tight, close.   nex necis f. = death, murder.

336.talibus Othryadae dictis et numine divum

337.in flammas et in arma feror, quo tristis Erinys

338.quo fremitus vocat et sublatus ad aethera clamor.

339.addunt se socios Rhipeus et maximus armis

340.Epytus, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque Dymasque

341.et lateri adglomerant nostro, iuvenisque Coroebus

342.Mygdonides ─ illis ad Troiam forte diebus

343.venerat insano Cassandrae incensus amore

344.et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat,

345.infelix qui non sponsae praecepta furentis


336-8.Words such as  this, and the will of the gods, led me to be drawn towards the flames, and to the fighting;  to the place where one of the grim Furies raged, where the roar of battle resounded, and the noise was carried up to the heavens.

339-41.People joined me, forming a troop:  Rhipeus, and Epytus (looking huge in his armour), seen against the moon;  Hypanis and Dymas joined on our flank, and the young Coroebus,

342-3.who is Mygdon’s son.  Coroebus was only by chance in Troy at that time – he had come because he was consumed by passionate love for Cassandra.

344.He, betrothed  to Priam’s daughter, was therefore fighting alongside Priam and his Trojans.

345-6.It was unlucky for him that he had not listened to the words his beloved had uttered, in her prophetic frenzy.

337 : feror pass.   Othryadae = son of ..., = Panthus.   Erinys = a Fury.338.fremitus fremitus m. = roar, growl.340. offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum = (here:) show, expose.343 : incensus : not adj., pp. of incendo, thus burnt, consumed.344.gener generi m. = son-in-law, or son-in-law-to-be.345.sponsa sponsae f. = bride, betrothed woman (spondeo, spondere, spopondi, sponsum intr. = pledge).   praeceptum praecepti n. = maxim, teaching.   furo furere  = rage, rave.

347.quos ubi confertos audere in proelia vidi,

348.incipio super his:  ‘iuvenes, fortissima frustra

349.pectora, si vobis audendi extrema cupido

350.certa sequi, quae sit rebus fortuna videtis;

351.excessere omnes adytis arisque relictis

352.di quibus imperium hoc steterat; succurritis urbi

353.incensae: moriamur et in media arma ruamus.

354.una salus victis nullam sperare salutem.’

347-8.Once I had reviewed the company, ranked in close order and eager to fight, I began to rouse them still further, with these words:

348-50.”Soldiers of Troy, the efforts of your great, brave, hearts have so far been in vain;  if now you have the steadfast purpose of following me, to show our bravery to the end – well, you see the state our affairs are in: 

351-2.the gods have gone,  all their shrines and altars abandoned – those gods on whom our state and power had rested. 

352-3.You are now eagerly going to fight for a city already vanquished – so, let us resolve to die, let us charge right into the heart of the fighting.

354.The one hope of the conquered is to hope for nothing.”

347.confertus adj. = (troops)in close order, crowded. : quos confertos audere acc. inf.348.super adv. = in addition (J,P).349 : audendi extrema = to the limit of bravery.   cupido certa : a sure desire.??How does cupido work?  abl.?

355.sic animis iuvenum furor additus.  inde, lupi ceu

356.raptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris

357.exegit caecos rabies catulique relicti

358.faucibus exspectant siccis, per tela, per hostes

359.vadimus haud dubiam in mortem mediaeque tenemus

360.urbis iter; nox atra cava circumvolat umbra.

361.quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando

362.explicet aut possit lacrimis aequare labores?

355.The blind rage in the mens’ souls grew as they heard my words.

355-8.We were like desperate, plundering wolves:  wolves, blind in dense fog, whom raging hunger  had driven from their homes, their milk-starved young abandoned and waiting.

358-60.We rushed through the enemy, disregarding their weapons, never doubting we should die, making our way to the centre of the city.   Black night enclosed us with a protective shadow.

361-2.Could anyone unfold the disastrous events of that night?  Could anyone speak of all our dead, or find the tears to match our troubles?

355.ceu adv. = just as, like.356.raptor raptoris m. = plunderer.  ater atra atrum adj. = black.   improbus adj. = reckless, uncontrollable : long note in P, absence of all restraint.   venter ventris m. = belly.357. exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum  = drive out.   rabies rabiei f. = madness.   catulus catuli m. = cub, puppy.359.vado vadere vasi = advance, rush.360.circumvolo 1. = encircle.361.clades cladis f. = defeat.   funus funeris n. = funeral, death.   for fari fatus sum = speak;  gerund fandus.362.??case of lacrimis?

363.urbs antiqua ruit multos dominata per annos;

364.plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim

365.corpora perque domos et religiosa deorum

366.limina.  nec soli poenas dant sanguine Teucri;

367.quondam etiam victis redit in praecordia virtus

368.victoresque cadent Danai.  crudelis ubique

369.luctus, ubique pavor et plurima mortis imago.

363.A venerable city has fallen, a city which for many years ruled over others.

364-6.Huge numbers of lifeless bodies are scattered everywhere - through our streets, our homes, and the temples of our gods.

366.And not only Trojans are paying the blood-penalty: 

367-8.sometimes courage returns to the hearts of the vanquished, and then the victorious Greeks themselves fall victim. 

368-9.Everywhere there is bitter grief, everywhere we see fear, and more and more forms of death.

363. ruo ruere rui rutum = ruin, overthrow, fall.   dominor, dominari, dominatus sum = rule over.364.iners inertis adj. = sluggish, motionless.366.poenas dare = pay the penalty.369. pavor pavoris m. = fear, panic.

(370-452 omitted)

(370-452 omitted)



Q:FIGHTING  (370-452 omitted)



(Q:370-401: In the Street)



(Q:402-34: At The Temple Of Pallas;  Cassandra)



Q:435-505: At Priam’s Palace


453.limen erat caecaeque fores et pervius usus

454.tectorum inter se Priami, postesque relicti

455.a tergo, infelix qua se, dum regna manebant,

456.saepius Andromache ferre incomitata solebat

457.ad soceros et avo puerum Astyanacta trahebat.

453-4.There was an entrance-way, and a secret door to a passage used for travelling between Priam’s buildings. 

455-7.There was an unnoticed door at the back, mostly used by the unfortunate Andromache, while the kingdom remained.  She was in the habit of using it, unaccompanied, to visit her parents-in-law, and to take the young Astyanax to his grandfather.

453.caecus adj. = blind, secret.   foris foris f. = gate, two leaves of a double door (pl.).   pervius adj. = affording a passage.

454 postis postis m. = doorpost, here pl. = door.

456.saepius (comp.) adv. = more often.   incomitatus adj. = unaccompanied.

457.socerus soceri m. = father-in-law.

??I find this whole passage impossible to work out.  I’d dearly like to see almost every word expounded, e.g. tectorum, why is it genitive?  a tergo = at the back?  Why ad soceros, but just avo on its own?   P & J both annotate it quite extensively, but for me still insufficiently.  The sense is clear enough, but the structures - ??.

458.evado ad summi fastigia culminis, unde

459.tela manu miseri iactabant inrita Teucri.

460.turrim in praecipiti stantem summisque sub astra

461.eductam tectis, unde omnis Troia videri

462.et Danaum solitae naves et Achaica castra,

463.adgressi ferro circum, qua summa labantes

464.iuncturas tabulata dabant, convellimus altis

465.sedibus impulimusque;  ea lapsa repente ruinam

466.cum sonitu trahit et Danaum super agmina late

467.incidit, ast alii subeunt, nec saxa nec ullum

468.telorum interea cessat genus.

458-9.I managed to make my way to the very highest point of the palace roof.  From here my unhappy countrymen were, vigorously but pointlessly, hurling missiles.

460-2.On the edge of this place there stood a tower, rising from the very top of the roof.  Only the stars were above it, and from it all Troy could be seen, including both the Greek ships’ berths and their camp. 

463-4.We set about this tower from all round, where the crumbling masonry of its upper levels gave some purchase to our tools. 

464-5.We dislodged the stones, throwing them from their high setting.

465-7.Suddenly it all collapsed, with a great noise, carrying destruction with it , falling over a wide expanse of the attacking  Greek columns.

467-8.But other Greeks came on still, while the battering of rocks and other weapons showed no sign of easing.

458. evado, evadere, evasi, evasum = escape.   culmen culminis n. = peak, summit.

459.inritus adj. = ineffective, useless.

460.praeceps praecipitis adj. = steep, precipitous.

461. educo, educere, eduxi, eductum = bring up, rear.

464. convello, convellere, convelli, convulsum = uproot, dislodge.

465. impello, impellere, impuli, impulsum = urge on, push, overthrow.   labor labi lapsus sum = slip & fall.   repente adv. = suddenly.

466.late adv. = widely.

467.ast conj. = but yet, at least.

469.vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus

470.exultat telis et luce coruscus aena;

471.qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus,

472.frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat,

473.nunc, positis novus exuviis nitidusque iuventa,

474.lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga

475.arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis.

469-70.In the entrance-way itself, first across the threshold, was Pyrrhus, proudly bearing his weapons, and brilliant in the light reflected from his bronze armour.

471-5.It was as though into the light of day had come a snake, emerging from the earth which had shielded it from the cold winter.  The creature, swollen with the venomous herbs it had eaten, has shed its old skin and now, bright in the still-slimy new skin, writhes and rears its crest to the sun, forked tongue flickering over its lips.

471.coluber colubri m. = snake.  pastus pastus m. = pasture.pasco pascere pavi pastum = feed on, here reflexive ‘middle’, J.    mala gramina :  ‘baneful herbs’ – P suggests the thought is that over the winter the the snake transmutes herbs into venom.

472.tumidus adj. = swollen.

473.exudia exudiae f. = things stripped off.   nitidus adj. = shining.

474.lubricus adj. = slippery.    convolvo, convolvere, convolvi, convolutum trans. = (roll up);  with terga, = writhe (of a snake : OLD).

475.mico micare micui = quiver, dart.

476.una ingens Periphas et equorum agitator Achillis,

477.armiger Automedon, una omnis Scyria pubes

478.succedunt tecto et flammas ad culmina iactant.

479.ipse interprimos correpta dura bipenni

480.limina perrumpit postesque a cardine vellit

481.aeratos;  iamque excisa trabe firma cavavit

482.robora et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram.

476-7.Accompanying Pyrrhus was the massive form of Periphas, and also Automedon, charioteer and armourer to Achilles.

477-8.After them came the whole youthful contingent from Scyria, throwing incendiaries to the very top of the roof.

479-81.Pyrrhus himself was in the van;  seizing a battle axe, he smashed at the heavy doors, uprooting the bronze-covered posts from their sockets.

481-2.He succeeded in cutting out one of the solid oak beams, and made a massive breach, giving a wide view to the inside.

476.agitator agitatoris m. (with or without equorum) = charioteer;  without equorum may be any animal driver.

478. succedo, succedere, successi, successum = climb, follow.

479. corripio, corripere, corripui, correptum = seize.   bipennis bipennis f. = battle-axe. (bipenni corrupta : abl. abs.)

481.aeratus adj. = bronze-covered.   trabs trabis f. = beam (often tree, club, or ship, but no-one gives panel, as J and W).

482.dedit : often in Virgil do means make, or cause (P).

483.apparet domus intus et atria longa patescunt

484.apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum

485.armatosque vident stantes in limine primo.

486.at domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu

487.miscetur, penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes

488.femineis ululant;  ferit aurea sidera clamor.

489.tum pavidae tectis matres ingentibus errant

490.amplexaeque tenent postes atque oscula figunt.

483.The inside of the building was now visible, and the vast halls of the palace were revealed.

484-5.The innermost sanctum of Priam and his royal precursors was exposed to view, and the royal family saw armed men standing on the very doorstep.

486-8.The whole interior was thrown into a confusion of groaning and misery:  deep within, the hollow halls resounded with the shrieks of women;  the din went up to the golden stars.

489-90.Panic-stricken mothers were wandering from room to vast room, hugging and holding the door-posts, and planting kisses on them.

484.appareo 2. = be visible.  regum : gen.pl. of rex.   patesco patescere patui = be revealed.

485.??unsure about limine primo.

486.tumultus tumultus m. = commotion, disturbance.

487. misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum = mix, mingle, but J gives miscetur = is in turmoil – as OLD#12, with abl..

489.pavidus adj. = terrified, panic-stricken.

490.figo figere fixi fixum = fix in place, impress (kisses).


491.instat vi patria Pyrrhus;  nec claustra nec ipsi

492.custodes suffere valent;  labat ariete crebro

493.ianua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes.

494.fit via vi;  rumpunt aditus primosque trucidant

495.inmissi Danai et late loca milite complent.

496.non sic aggeribus ruptis cum spumeus amnis

497.exiit oppositasque evicit gurgite moles,

498.fertur in arva furens cumulo camposque per omnes

499.cum stabulis armenta trahit.  ...

491-2.The door locks could not impede Pyrrhus, who came on with the same vigour as his father – neither could the guards themselves stop him.

492-3.The gate gave way under the repeated attacks of a battering ram, and the gateposts, uprooted, lay flat.

494.A way through was forced by sheer power.

494-5.The Greek troops sent forward forced their way in, slaughtering to a man the first line of defenders, and filling the place with soldiers throughout.

496.The violence was such that not even a foaming river, bursting its banks, could compare with it; 

497.a river which issued as a swirling mass of water, overcoming every barrier placed in its path,

498-9.rushing into the fields , raging in a furious mass over the whole plain, carrying away the livestock and their shelter.

491.insto instare institi = take up a stand in a threatening manner, press on with violence (+...).   Pyrrhus’s father is Achilles.

492. suffero, sufferre, sustuli, sublatum = endure.   labo 1. = totter, give way.

493. emoveo, emovere, emovi, emotum = dislodge.   procumbo, procumbere, procubui, procubitum = lie down.

494.fit : here the true passive of facio, was made, not became.   rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptum = break, destroy.   aditus aditus m. = entrance.   trucido 1. = slaughter, massacre.

495.late adv. = widely.

496.spumeus adj. = foaming.   amnis amnis m. = river.

497. evinco, evincere, evici, evictum = conquer.   gurges gurgitis m. = whirlpool.   moles molis f. = heap : here pl., of stuff oppositas, placed in its path.

499.stabulum stabuli n. = stable, stall.   armentum armenti n. = cattle, horses.

499.                                          ...    vidi ipse furentem

500.caede Neoptolemum geminosque in limine Atridas,

501.vidi Hecubam centumque nurus Priamumque per aras

502.sanguine foedantem quos ipse sacraverat ignes.

503.quinquaginta illi thalami, spes ampla nepotum,

504.barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi

505.procubuere; tenent Danai qua deficit ignis.

499-500.With my own eyes I saw Neoptolemus, raging, in the act of slaughter;  I saw Agamemnon and Menelaus both coming in; 

501-2.I saw Hecuba, with her hundred girls, and Priam, polluting with his own blood the altars whose fires he himself had consecrated.

503-5.There were fifty bridal chambers in the palace, giving every hope of royal progeny;  the doorposts of these rooms, proudly decorated with trophies of foreign gold, now lay flat.

505.The Greeks now held everything that the fire had spared.

501.nurus nurus f. = daughter-in-law.

502.foedo 1. = pollute.

503.thalamus thalami m. = bedroom of a married couple.

505. procumbo, procumbere, procubui, procubitum = lie down.


Q:506-58:  The Death of Priam


506.forsitan et Priami fuerint quae fata requiras.

507.urbis uti captae casum convulsaque vidit

508.limina tectorum et medium in penetralibus hostem,

509.arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo

510.circumdat nequiquam umeris et inutile ferrum

511.cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostes.

512.aedibus in mediis nudoque sub aetheris axe

513.ingens ara fuit iuxtaque veterrima laurus

514.incumbens arae atque umbra complexa penates.

506.Now, Majesty, it may be you would like to hear about the fate of Priam.

507-8.He witnessed the fall of his city, he saw the shattered gates of his palace, and the enemy in the middle of his private sanctum.

508-10.Seeing all this, the old man vainly put his long‑unused armour onto his shoulders, which shuddered with age.

510-11.He bound on his useless sword and, ready to die, threw himself onto the enemy hordes.

512-13.There was, in the middle of the palace, in the open air, a vast altar, exposed to the eye of heaven.

513-4.Near it was an ancient bay tree, which leaned over the altar, sheltering the household gods.

506. requiro, requirere, requisivi, requisitum = require, ask for :  requiras : pres.subj.   fuerint : perf.subj. in ind.quest. forsitan requiras quae....

507.casus casus m. = fall, overthrow.   convello, convellere, convelli, convulsum = shatter.

509.senior senioris m. = old man.   aevus aevi m. = time of life, old age.

510.circumdat : surround, but here transitive, put on (surrounding his shoulders).    nequiquam adv. = in vain.

512.axis axis m. = axis, earth’s axis, sky.

513.laurus laurus f. = laurel, bay tree. (Maybe a link with the one Aeneas sees in the future Rome,

514. incumbo, incumbere, incumbui, incumbitum = lean over (+...).  

515.hic Hecuba et natae nequiquam altaria circum,

516.praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae,

517.condensae et divum amplexae simulacra sedebant.

518.ipsum autem sumptis Priamum iuvenalibus armis

519.ut vidit, ‘quae mens tam dira, miserrime coniunx,

520.impulit his cingi telis?  aut quo ruis?’inquit.

521.’non tali auxilio nec defensoribus istis

522.tempus eget;  non, si ipse meus nunc adforet Hector.

523.huc tandem concede;  haec ara tuebitur omnes,

524.aut moriere simul.’  sic ore effata recepit

525.ad sese et sacra longaevum in sede locavit.


515-7.Here Hecuba and her daughters were, for no good reason, sitting down around the altar, rather as a dense flock of doves will fly down in panic from a dark storm.  The women had their arms round the statues of our gods.

518-20.When Hecuba saw that Priam had put on the arms he had borne when young, she spoke these words:  ‘My love, my unhappy love, what dark impulse has made you put on these weapons?  What destiny are you heading for in such a hurry?’

521--2.’Our plight does not demand this sort of help, or the sort of protector you now are.  Even if my Hector himself were with us it would still be no good.’

523-4. ‘Give up this nonsense at last, and come here to this altar;  it will protect us all, or else at least you will die together with us.’

524-5.Having made this solemn pronouncement, Hecuba took the aged Priam in her arms, settling him in a place by the altar.

516.ceu adv. = just as.

517.condensus adj. = dense, close packed.   divus divi m. = god.   (divum=divorum).

522.egeo egere egui = lack, require.

523. concedo, concedere, concessi, concessum = submit.   tueor tueri tutus sum = protect.

524.moriere = morieris.   effor effari effatus sum = utter solemn words.

525.longaevus adj. = aged, of great age.

526.ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede Polites,

527.unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hostes

528.porticibus longis fugit et vacua atria lustrat

529.saucius.  illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus

530.insequitur, iam iamque manu tenet et premit hasta.

531.ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum,

532.concidit ac multo vitam cum sanguine fudit.

533.hic Priamus, quamquam in media iam morte tenetur,

534.non tamen abstinuit nec voci iraeque pepercit:

526-9.Now Polites was one of Priam’s sons, and he had escaped, though wounded, from Pyrrhus’s killing frenzy.  He fled down the long passages, dodging the enemy and their weapons, and was looking round the empty halls.

529-30.But Pyrrhus was fiercely chasing him, very nearly catching him, pressing with the very spear that had wounded him.

531-2.Eventually Polites ended up in the full view of his parents, and there he was killed, pouring out his life, his blood spurting.

533-4.Here Priam, although a dying man, did not stay quiet, nor spared his voice in uttering these angry words:

526. elabor, elabi, elapsus sum = escape.

528.fugit : pres. because u is long in perf.   lustro 1. = purify, roam over.

529. saucius adj. = wounded.   infestus adj. = hostile : J notes that vulnus can mean the weapon causing the wound.

530.iam iamque = ‘expressing imminence’ – OLD iam #6, and see P.   This line is unusual in that the penultimate foot starts with a monosyllable (Warde Fowler The Classical Review, 1919).

531. evado, evadere, evasi, evasum = end up, emerge (OLD#8).

534.parco : +dat.

535.’at tibi pro scelere,’ exclamat, ‘pro talibus ausis

536.di, si qua est caelo pietas quae talia curet,

537.persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant

538.debita, qui nati coram me cernere letum

539.fecisti et patrios foedasti funere vultus.

540.at non ille, satum quo te mentiris, Achilles

541.talis in hoste fuit Priamo;  sed iura fidemque

542.supplicis erubuit corpusque exsangue sepulcro

543.reddidit Hectoreum meque in mea regna remisit.’


535-7.’Damn you for this crime’ he shouted.  ‘If the gods above do their duty in punishing vile deeds like yours, grant that they give you right thanks.

537-9.May they give you your due reward:  you, who forced me to see the murder of my son, in my very presence darkening a father’s face with this death.

540-1.The renowned Achilles, whom you falsely claim as a father, did not treat me so, although we were enemies.

541-3.He honoured the rights and trust of one desperately pleading, and returned Hector’s body, drained of blood as it was, for due burial;

543.then he sent me back, to my kingdom.’

535:at : OLD#11cited: an indignant expostulation.   ausum ausi n. = outrage, crime.

536.curo 1. = look after, care about.   qua pietas curet : generic subj. H103.5.

538. cerno, cernere, crevi, cretum = discern, see (+...). letum leti n. = (violent) death.   coram here adv., prep. takes abl.

539.patrius adj. = father’s.   foedo 1. = defile : foedasti = foedavisti.

540.satus adj. = sprung from (sero). (Pyrrhus is Achilles’ son).   mentior, mentiri, mentitus sum = lie, deceive.

542. erubesco, erubescere, erubui tr. = respect.OLD#1g-cited.

544.sic fatus senior telumque imbelle sine ictu

545.coniecit, rauco quod protinus aere repulsum,

546.et summo clipei nequiquam umbone pependit.

547.cui Pyrrhus:  ‘referes ergo haec et nuntius ibis

548.Pelidae genitori.  illi mea tristia facta

549.degeneremque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 550.nunc morere.’  ...

544-5.With these words, the old man weakly threw his ineffective spear.

545-6.It was stopped immediately with a harsh clang from the bronze boss of Pyrrhus’s shield, where it hung uselessly from the top.

547-8.Then Pyrrhus said to him:  ‘Very well, you will go as messenger to my father, and duly tell this story. 

548-9.Remember to tell him of my despicable deeds, and that his son is a disgrace to the family.

550.And now, die!’

544.imbellis adj. = unwarlike.   ictus ictus m. = metrical beat, force.

545.raucus adj. = hoarse, making a harsh sound.

546.umbo umbonis m. = shield boss.

548.Pelidae : dat. of Pelides = son of Peleus, father of Achilles.

550.morere : imperative, or 2nd pers. sing., of morior.

550.  ...                  hoc dicens altaria ad ipsa trementem

551.traxit et in multo lapsantem sanguine nati,

552.implicuitque comam laeva, dextraque coruscum

553.extulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem.

554.haec finis Priami fatorum, hic exitus illum

555.sorte tulit Troiam incensam et prolapsa videntem

556.Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum

557.regnatorem Asiae.  iacet ingens litore truncus,

558.avulsumque umeris caput et sine nomine corpus.

550-2.Then Pyrrhus dragged the trembling man, sliding in pools of his son’s blood, up to the altar itself, winding Priam’s hair in his own left hand.

552-3.With his right hand he drew his bright sword and plunged it up to the hilt in Priam’s side.

554-6.Thus the end of all Priam’s years.  Thus, by fate, death took him as he saw Troy burnt and its citadel in ruins; 

556-7.he who for so long had been the proud ruler of the people and lands of Asia.

557-8.Now he lay like a monstrous tree-trunk on the shore, his head torn from his shoulders, an anonymous corpse.

551. traho, trahere, traxi, tractum = drag.   lapso 1. = slip.  

553.capulus capuli m. = hilt.   tenus prep.+abl. = up to.   abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditum = bury a weapon in a body. OLD#3.cited.

558. avello, avellere, avulsi, avulsum = tear off.


Q:559-87:  Helen


559.at me tum primum saevus circumstetit horror.

560.obstipui;  subiit cari genitoris imago,

561.ut regem aequaevum crudeli vulnere vidi

562.vitam exhalantem;  subiit deserta Creusa

563.et direpta domus et parvi casus Iuli.

564.respicio et quae sit me circum copia lustro.

565.deseruere omnes defessi, et corpora saltu

566.ad terram misere aut ignibus aegra dedere.

559-60.Now, for the very first time, a dreadful horror took hold of me.  I became dazed.  A vision of my dear father came to my mind; 

561-3.I imagined him being treated in the same way as the king, who was the same age, and whom I had seen, cruelly wounded, gasping out his life.  I pictured my abandoned Creusa, my plundered house, and the plight of my little Julius.

564.I looked back, wondering what remained of my companions.

565-6.They had all abandoned me.  Utterly demoralised, they had either jumped to their deaths to the ground below, or given themselves, despairing, to the flames.

560.obstipesco, obstipescere, obstipui = be amazed.  subeo intr. = come to mind (+...), see J note.

561.aequaevus adj. = of the same age.  crudelis adj. = savage, cruel.

562. desero, deserere, deserui, desertum trans. = abandon, depart.

563. diripio, diripere, diripui, direptum = tear apart, pillage.

564. respicio, respicere, respexi, respectum = look back at (+...).  quae sit : ind. quest. (J) or purpose clause: ‘what force there might be around me’.  lustro 1. = review, look around.  Moving to historic present.

565.deseruere : see desero above, here rendered plup., for hist. pres.  defetiscor, defetisci, defessus sum = become exhausted, lose heart.   saltus saltus m. = leap.

566.misere = miserunt, they sent their bodies to the ground with a leap. 

567-587 omitted

(Aeneas sees Helen, and has wild thoughts about killing her.)



Q: 588-633  Venus & Vision of Gods Destroying Troy


588.talia iactabam et furiata mente ferebar,

589.cum mihi se, non ante oculis tam clara, videndam

590.obtulit et pura per noctem in luce refulsit

591.alma parens, confessa deam qualisque videri

592.caelicolis et quanta solet, dextraque prehensum

593.continuit roseoque haec insuper addidit ore:

(referring to the wild words omitted above)

588-9.I was thinking in this driven way, my maddened mind racing, when I received an extraordinary vision.  589-91.My loving mother made herself visible to me, more clearly than ever before.  She was shining in the darkness with a clear light, revealing herself a goddess,

591-2.showing herself in a manner and stature in which she was usually seen only by her fellow immortals.

592-3.She held me close, gripped by her right hand, then let fall these words from her rose‑red lips:

588.iacto 1. = toss about, boast, utter(J).   furio 1. = madden, enrage.    ferebar :  J note: passive of fero used for swift movement.

589-90.offero = show, present.  se obtulit vivendam = presented herself for seeing.   refulgeo refulgere refulsi = shine brightly.

591. confessam : J & P differ, I follow J.

592. caelicola, caelicolae c. = heaven‑dweller.   prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensum = grip.

593. contineo, continere, continui, contentum = restrain (+...-OLD*12).   roseus adj. = rosy.    insuper adv. = above (or, can mean in addition, J).   addo, addere, addidi, additum tr. = say in addition, add, insert.

594.’nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras?

595.quid furis aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit?

596.non prius aspicies ubi fessum aetate parentem

597.liqueris Anchisen, superet coniunxne Creusa

598.Ascaniusque puer?  quos omnes undique Graiae

599.circum errant acies et, ni mea cura resistat,

600.iam flammae tulerint inimicus et hauserit ensis.

601.non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaenae

602.culpatusne Paris, divum inclementia, divum,

603.has evertit opes sternitque a culmine Troiam.’

594-5.“Now, Aeneas, what can be the bitterness that has stirred you to such anger?  Just what are you raving at, and what has happened to your devotion to us, your family?

596-8.Will you not think about where you have left Anchises, your tired and aged father?  or whether your wife Creusa and your son Ascanius yet live?

598-600.Multifarious bands of Greeks are prowling round all three of them, and would have thrown them to the flames, or, an enemy sword would have drawn their blood, had I not stopped them.

601-3.Be assured that it is not the hated face of Helen that has destroyed the power of Troy and scattered it from its high peak.  Nor is it Paris, blameworthy though he is.  Troy’s fate is actually due to the mercilessness of the gods, of the very gods themselves.

594.(Speech continues to line 620).

594.indomitus adj. = fierce.   dolor doloris m. = pain, suffering, indignation.

595.furo furere = rave.   quonam adv. = to what place.

596. aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectum = look at, consider.

599.acies: pl.(some texts have omnis for omnes, which I guess would then go with a sing. acies - ‘the whole line of Greeks...’).   resisto resistere restiti = oppose, withstand.

600.haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum = wound so as to drain blood: OLD#3cited.

601.invisus adj. = hated.

602.culpo 1. = blame.

603. everto, evertere, everti, eversum = destroy.   sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum = scatter.

604.’aspice (namque omnem, quae nunc obducta tuenti

605.mortales hebetat visus tibi et umida circum

606.caligat, nubem eripiam;  tu ne qua parentis

607.iussa time neu praeceptis parere recusa):

608.hic, ubi disiectas moles avulsaque saxis

609.saxa vides, mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum,

610.Neptunus muros magnoque emota tridenti

611.fundamenta quatit totamque a sedibus urbem

612.eruit.  hic Iuno Scaeas saevissima portas

613.prima tenet sociumque furens a navibus agmen

614.ferro accincta vocat.’

604-6.“Now pay attention, for in fact I’m going to draw aside that whole veil which now dims your mortal perceptions, drawn round you as you look, surrounding you with a damp mist.

606-7.Do not you fear what is ordained by your divine mother, and do not refuse to obey her commands.

608-9.Look around here, where you see piles of stones torn from stones, and a wave of smoke mixed with dust. 

610-12.It is the Earth Shaker himself who shakes the walls, their foundations heaved by his great trident.  He is tearing up the whole city by its roots.

612-14.And you can see Juno, at the Scaean Gate, as she gibbers with rage and savage cruelty.  See her, in her armour, at the head of her own fighting column;  it is she who commands these men, and calls them to hurry from the ships.

604.namque conj. = for in fact (emphatic nam).   obducta tuenti : laid over you looking.

604-6 : omnem ... nubem eripiam.

605.hebeto 1. = make dull.

606.caligo 1. = be dark, have bad vision.

608. disicio, disicere, disjeci, disjectum = break up, scatter.

610. emoveo, emovere, emovi, emotum = remove, dislodge.


614. accingo, accingere, accinxi, accinctum = gird on.

615.’iam summas arces Tritionia, respice, Pallas

616.insedit nimbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva.

617.ipse pater Danais animos viresque secundas

618.sufficit, ipse deos in Dardana suscitat arma.

619.eripe, nate, fugam finemque impone labori.

620.nusquam abero et tutum patrio te limine sistam.’

621.dixerat et spissis noctis se condidit umbris.

615-6.“And now, right at the top of your citadel, see Athene herself, shining as it were in a cloud, and bearing the monstrous Gorgon‑head.

617-8.Jupiter himself is providing the Greeks with the required courage and strength, and urging the other gods to oppose the Trojan arms.

619.My darling son, you absolutely must run away, right now, and write finis to your hopeless task.

620.There is nowhere I shall not be with you, and I shall arrange for your protection within your father’s house.”

621.Thus the goddess spoke;  then, making herself invisible, vanished into the dense shadows of night.

618.sufficio : provide – OLD#1cited.   suscito 1. = encourage.   in prep. = against (OLD#9).

620.“patt ro te | limm in e”.   sisto sistere stiti statum = put in place (OLD#4b.cited).

621.spissus adj. = thick, dense (OLD#2c.cited).   condo, condere, condidi, conditum = put away for concealment (OLD#6/14).

622.apparent dirae facies inimicaque Troiae

623.numina magna deum.

624.tum vero omne mihi visum considere in ignes

625.Ilium et ex imo verti Neptunia Troia;

626.ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum

627.cum ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant

628.eruere agricolae certatim;  illa usque minatur

629.et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat,

630.vulneribus donec paulatim evicta supremum

631.congemuit traxitque iugis avulsa ruinam.

622-3.The dreadful truth was thus revealed:  the mighty power of the gods was turned against Troy.

624-5.Then, it seemed, I saw the whole of Troy collapsing into the flames;  founded by Neptune, it was now destroyed, down to its very foundations.

626-8.I saw in my mind’s eye an ancient ash tree, at the very top of a mountain, when it is assailed by frequent blows of the axe;  the woodsmen rival each other as they work together to destroy it.

628-9.It looks all the time as though it is going to fall;  stricken and weakened, it wavers, making its leaves tremble right to the top. 

630-1.Until, little by little, overcome by wounds, it gives its last great groan, and, torn from its hillside, slumps to its end.

622.dirus adj. = dreadful, ominous.   facies faciei f. = shape, face (here pl.).

624. consido, considere, consedi, consessum = collapse, be overwhelmed (OLD#6cited), here acc. inf. with Ilium.   mihi visum (est) = it seemed to me.

625.imus adj. = lowest.   verto, vertere, verti, versum = change, overthrow, destroy.

ornus orni FEM. = mountain ash tree.

628.usque adv. = all the way, continuously.   minatur : threatens (to fall).   tremefacio = cause to tremble.

629. concutio, concutere, concussi, concussum = strike so as to weaken.   nuto 1. = sway as if about to fall (OLD#6b.cited).

630.super superior supremus = great;  and supremus = last.

631.traho : drag (oneself) down in ruins (OLD#8b).



632: start of Jordan section.

Q:  634-704:  Anchises:  Miracles of the Flame and the Comet.


632.descendo ac ducente deo flammam inter et hostes

633.expedior:  dant tela locum flammaeque recedunt.

634.atque ubi iam patriae perventum ad limina sedis

635.antiquasque domos, genitor, quem tollere in altos

636.optabam primum montes primumque petebam,

637.abnegat excisa vitam producere Troia

638.exsilium pati.  ‘vos o, quibus integer aevi

639.sanguis,’ ait, ‘solidaeque suo stant robore vires,

640.vos agitate fugam.

632-3.I made my way down, led by divine power safely between the fire and the enemy;  the weapons withdrew, and the flames drew back.

634-8.Eventually I arrived at the threshold of the paternal mansion, our home since ancient times.  I was anxious to take him straightaway to the high mountains, and started urging him to agree.   But he declined to prolong his life, and suffer exile, when Troy had been destroyed.

638-40.“You”  he said, “You, of an age when the blood is still lively;  you, whose power of action rests on your own strength;  you, go ahead and flee.

633.expedio 4. = extricate from a difficult position;  OLD#2 citation says this passive is a middle;  P and J just say expedior = I make my way.  P is usually hot for the middles, and gives a list of uses in the Aeneid, but only where the participle governs an acc.

637. produco, producere, produxi, productum = prolong (+...).

641.me si caelicolae voluissent ducere vitam,

642.has mihi servassent sedes.  satis una superque

643.vidimus excidia et captae superavimus urbi.

644.sic o sic positum adfate discedite corpus.

645.ipse manu mortem inveniam;  miserebitur hostis

646.exuviasque petet.  facilis iactura sepulcri.

647.iam pridem invisus divis et inutilis annos

648.demoror, ex quo me divum pater atque hominum rex

649.fulminis adflavit ventis et contigit igni.’

641-2.“If the gods had wanted me to go on living, they would have preserved my house.

642-3.I have seen one catastrophe;  that is enough, and more than enough;  and I have survived while our city has fallen.

644.Speak now to my body, placed as you see it, and then depart!

645-6.With my own hand I shall find death.  Let the enemy pity me as they help themselves to my possessions. 

646.The fact that I shall not be buried does not trouble me. 

647-8.For too long now I have hung on, hateful to the gods, through desolate years: 

648-9. years that have passed, since Jupiter breathed on me the winds of thunder, and touched me with the fire of lightning.”


641.caelicola, caelicolae c. = heaven‑dweller, god.

642.??grammar of una superque vidimus??

643.excidium excidii n. = military destruction.  A. had witnessed destruction by Hercules?   ‘Plural of pathos’ (Maguinness) is used in vidimus).

644. adfor, adfari, adfatus sum = speak to.   discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum = depart.   disc scans short.

646.iactura iacturae f. = loss, sacrifice.

647.invisus divis = hated by the gods.

648. demoror, demorari, demoratus sum = delay (here ‘delay the years’, poetic).

649.fulmen fulminis n. = thunderbolt, lightning.   afflo 1. = breathe on.

(Anchises had been punished by Jupiter for speaking of his affair with Venus.  I read somewhere the dry comment that J ‘tended to resent’ such behaviour.


650: start of Jordan section.


650.talia perstabat memorans fixusque manebat.

651.nos contra effusi lacrimis coniunxque Creusa

652.Ascaniusque omnisque domus, ne vertere secum

653.cuncta pater fatoque urgenti incumbere vellet.

654.abnegat inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem.

650.He persisted in saying these things, and remained obdurate.

651-2.We were all weeping uncontrollably – Creusa, my dear wife, and Ascanius, and in fact the whole household. 

652-3.We despaired at the thought that my father would bring us all to the same ruin as himself, and wanted to increase the burden of a fate already heavy.

654.But he refused to change his mind, as firm in purpose as he was determined to stay put.

650. persto, perstare, perstiti, perstatum = stand firm.   memoro 1. = remember, relate.


652. verto, vertere, verti, versum = change, destroy.

654.inceptum incepti n. = beginning, purpose.   haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum = adhere, stick.

655.rursus in arma feror mortemque miserrimus opto.

656.nam quod consilium aut quae iam fortuna dabatur?

657.‘mene efferre pedem, genitor, te posse relicto

658.sperasti tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore?

659.si nihil ex tanta superis placet urbe relinqui,

660.et sedet hoc animo perituraeque addere Troiae

661.teque tuosque iuvat:  patet isti ianua leto,

662.iamque aderit multo Priami de sanguine Pyrrhus,

663.natum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras.

655.Once again I put on my armour, and, thoroughly depressed, opted for death.

656.What other course could I possibly adopt?  What did fortune have in store for me?

657-8.“ Did you think, father”,  I said  “that I could just walk out of here and leave you behind?  Could such an unholy idea have fallen from a father’s lips?

659.It may be that that the gods have decided that nothing shall remain of such a city as ours.

660-1.If that is the case, if your mind is made up, if you are determined to add  your own family’s devastation to that of Troy – then the gateway to that sort of death is open before you.

662-3.Even now, Pyrrhus is on his way here, reeking with the blood of Priam:  Pyrrhus, who killed the son before the father’s eyes, then cut down that father on his own altar.

655.opto 1. = choose.

657.mene = me + ne.

658.spero 1. = hope, anticipate, understand (OLD#5).  speravisti : 2nd person.

661. juvat, juvare, juvit, jutus est impersonal + acc. = it pleases.   pateo patere patui = be open.   letum leti n. = death, destruction, manner of dying (OLD#2).

663.obtrunco 1. = kill, cut down.

664.hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignes

665.eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus utque

666.Ascanium patremque meum iuxtaque Creusam

667.alterum in alterius mactatos sanguine cernam?

668.arma, viri, ferte arma;  vocat lux ultima victos.

669.reddite me Danais;  sinite instaurata revisam

670.proelia.  numquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti.’

664-5“Mother! my dear ever-watchful mother!  Can it have been for this that you shielded and saved me through fire and sword? 

665-7.That I should live to see the enemy in my home, to see Ascanius, and my father, and my dear Creusa, all slaughtered, each one’s blood mingling with one of the other’s?

668.My soldiers, comrades, take up your weapons!  The last of life’s light is summoning the vanquished!

669-70.Take me back to the Greeks!  Grant that I may return to a renewed struggle!  We shall all die this day - but, most surely, not unavenged!”

667.macto 1. = sacrifice, slaughter.

669. sino, sinere, sivi, situm = allow.   instauro 1. = renew.   reviso revisere = revisit   revisam pres.subj.

670.inultus adj. = unpunished, unavenged.   numquam : ‘becomes an emphatic negative’ (P).


671: Start of Jordan section.


671.hinc ferro accingor rursus clipeoque sinistram

672.insertabam aptans meque extra tecta ferebam.

673.ecce autem complexa pedes in limine coniunx

674.haerebat, parvumque patri tendebat Iulum:

675.‘si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum;

676.sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem ponis in armis,

677.hanc primum tutare domum.  cui parvus Iulus,

678.cui pater et coniunx quondam tua dicta relinquor?’

671-2.Thus, I fastened my sword-belt a second time, and was fitting on my shield, putting my left arm through its handle, and I began hurrying out of the building.

673-4.But!  I had just got to the doorway when there was Creusa, clinging to me, embracing my very feet, and holding out our little Iulus to his father.

675.“If you are going away to die, take us with you as well, to share your fate in all its details.

676-7.But, if it turns out there is some hope of success with these weapons you have taken up and put on, your first duty is to protect this house.

677-8.To whom should I leave our little Iulus, or your father?  Or my own self, whom you have in the past called your wife?”

671. accingo, accingere, accinxi, accinctum = gird on, accingor : reflexive middle.   ??How does hinc work? J gives henceforth?

675. rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum = carry off, seize.

676.sin conj. = if not.   sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum = take up.   spem + (esse) acc. inf.

677.tuto 1. = protect.

679.talia vociferans gemitu tectum omne replebat,

680.cum subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstrum.

681.namque manus inter maestorumque ora parentum

682.ecce levis summo de vertice visus Iuli

683.fundere lumen apex, tactuque innoxia molles

684.lambere flamma comas et circum tempora pasci.

685.nos pavidi trepidare metu crinemque flagrantem

686.excutere et sanctos restinguere fontibus ignes.

679.In this way she made her vehement plea, and the whole place was filled with her groaning.

680.But then!  It is quite extraordinary to speak of what then occurred:  a sudden, supernatural, event:

681.Iulus was in our sight, within the grasp of us, his distraught parents. 

682-3.Then a tongue of flame was seen, its flickering light dancing around the top of his head.

683-4.The flame did no harm to what it touched, licking the soft hair round his temples, as though grazing.

685-6.We were panic-stricken, fearful, shaking at his flaming hair,  pouring water on the sacred fires to quench them.

680. orior, ori, oritus sum = rise.

682.levis adj. = flickering.   vertex verticis m. = whirlpool, crown of the head.

683. fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum = scatter.   fundere : seen to dance.    apex apicis f. = top (W: pointed cap,  OLD#4cited = point of flame,  P: gives a long note, deprecating the cap, supporting the point, or tongue, of flame).   tactus tactus m. = touch.  mollis adj. = soft.

684.tempus temporis n. = side of the forehead, temple.    pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum = graze, feed on;  passive inf. pasci : reflexive.


         __    v    v       __  __

685.nemque fla | grantem ??Both the light syllables look heavy by position?

685-6.trepidare etc. : historic infinitives.

686. excutio, excutere, excussi, excussum = shake off, cast out.   restinguo, restinguere, restinxi, restinctum = extinguish.   fontibus : with water (J).

687.at pater Anchises oculos ad sidera laetus

688.extulit et caelo palmas cum voce tetendit:

689.‘Iuppiter omnipotens, precibus si flecteris utilis,

690.aspice nos, hoc tantum, et si pietate meremur,

691.da deinde augurium, pater, atque haec omina firma.’

692.vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore

693.intonuit laevum, et de caelo lapsa per umbras

694.stella facem ducens multa cum luce cucurrit.

687-8.My father was overjoyed.  Raising hands and eyes and voice to heaven, he prayed aloud:

689-91.“Almighty Jupiter, if it is possible for you to attend to our prayers, look down on us and grant this one favour:  if through our reverence for you we deserve it, give another sign, father, to confirm this portent.”

692-4.Hardly were the words out of the old man’s mouth, than there was a sudden crash – a clap of thunder - to the left - and then a star, trailing light, and bathed in its own rich light, fell from heaven and sped through the dark shadows.

689. flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum = bend, persuade.

691.firmo 1. = confirm.

692.fragor fragoris n. = noise, crash.

694.fax facis f. = torch, fire.

695.illam summa super labentem culmina tecti

696.cernimus Idaea claram se condere silva

697.signantemque vias;  tum longo limite sulcus

698.dat lucem et late circum loca sulphure fumant.

699.hic vero victus genitor se tollit ad auras

700.adfaturque deos et sanctum sidus adorat.

701.‘iam iam nulla mora est;  sequor et qua ducitis adsum,

702.di patrii:  servate domum, servate nepotem.

703.vestrum hoc augurium, vestroque in numine Troia est.

704.cedo equidem nec, nate, tibi comes ire recuso.’

695-7.We watched that bright star as it sailed over the highest point of roof and over Mount Ida, its course showing a way through the woods.

697-8.Then, with the trail of its passage still giving light to the long path, the land all around was smoking with sulphur.

699-700.Now were my father’s desperate thoughts at last laid to rest.  He went into the open air and prayed thus to the gods and to the sacred star:

701-3.“Gods of our country, the time for delay is now over:   I now follow you, and am ready for wherever you lead me.  Help and protect our home, and my little grandson. This portent is truly from you, and Troy is indeed under your divine protection.

704.And, my dear son, I now yield to your entreaty, and no longer refuse to be your companion.”

697.sulcus sulci m.= trail of a meteor (here the path of the star).   limes limitis m. = path, track.

698.(J)late circum = far and wide all round.


Q:  705-29:  Aeneas’s Party Sets Out.


705.dixerat ille, et iam per moenia clarior ignis

706.auditur, propiusque aestus incendia volvunt.

707.‘ergo age, care pater, cervici imponere nostrae;

708.ipse subibo umeris nec me labor iste gravabit;

709.quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum,

710.una salus ambobus erit.  mihi parvus Iulus

711.sit comes, et longe servet vestigia coniunx.

712.vos, famuli, quae dicam animis advertite vestris.

705-6.Thus Anchises spoke;  and now the fire could be heard more and more clearly through the walls, and the flames were bringing waves of heat ever nearer.

707-8.“So, do you now, Father, put your legs around my neck.  I shall lift with my shoulders, and the labour will not be hard.

709-10.Then, however things turn out, there will be for both of us the same danger and the same salvation.

710-11.Let little Iulus be my companion, and let Creusa follow at a distance, carefully noting our path.

712.Now, you, my household staff, pay close attention to what I say.


706.aestus aestus m. = heat, tide (J suggests both).   incendium incendii n. = fire, pl. = flames.

707.imponere : middle imperative.

711.vestigia : footprints.

713.est urbe egressis tumulus templumque vetustum

714.desertae Cereris, iuxtaque antiqua cupressus

715.religione patrum multos servata per annos.

716.hanc ex diverso sedem veniemus in unam.

717.tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque penates,

718.me bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti

719.attractare nefas, donec me flumine vivo


713-4.Visible to people leaving the city is a small hill with an old temple dedicated to the forsaken goddess Ceres.

714-5.Next to the temple is an ancient cypress, tended for many years as part of the religion of our fathers.

716.That is the place we shall come together from our various directions.

717.Now you, Father, do you take into your hands our holy things, and our ancestral gods:

718.I am myself cut off from holy things by war, coming fresh from the slaughter, and must not touch them until I have purified myself in a running stream.”

718. digredior, digredi, digressus sum = depart, separate, divorce.

719.attracto 1. = touch.

720. abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutum = wash away, purify (abluero : fut.perf.).

721.haec fatus latos umeros subiectaque colla

722.veste super fulvique insternor pelle leonis

723.succedoque oneri;  dextrae se parvus Iulus

724.implicuit sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis;

725.pone subit coniunx.  ferimur per opaca locorum,

726.et me, quem dudum non ulla iniecta movebant

727.tela neque adverso glomerati ex agmine Grai,

728.nunc omnes terrent aurae, sonus excitat omnis

729.suspensum et pariter comitique onerique timentem.

721-3.These things I said, then stooped my neck and put on a tawny lion-skin which covered even my broad shoulders.

723-5.Then I accepted my burden.  My little Iulus folded his hand in mine and tripped along beside me.  Creusa followed along behind.

725-7.On we went, slipping through shadowy places:  even I, whom just a short time before no spear could shift, and no enemy from the thronged Greek battle line.

728.Now every breath of wind, every sound, made me anxious, fearing equally for the man on my back and the boy by my side.

721.latus adj. = broad.   collum colli n. = neck.

722.vestis vestis f. = garment   fulvus adj. = yellow, tawny.  insterno insternere instravi instratus = cover (here reflexive middle).

724.implico implicare implicui = enfold.  Scansion mirrors the child’s uneven steps.

725.pone adv. = behind.


Q:  730-70:  Creusa Lost, Aeneas Returns.

730: start of Jordan section.


730.iamque propinquabam portis omnemque videbar

731.evasisse viam, subito cum creber ad aures

732.visus adesse pedum sonitus, genitorque per umbram

733.prospiciens ‘nate’ exclamat ‘fuge, nate;  propinquant.

734.ardentes clipeos atque aera micantia cerno.’

730-1.Now I was nearing the gates, and seemed to have safely completed the journey.

731-.Then suddenly in my ears there seemed to be the sound of many feet, and my father, peering through the shadows, exclaimed: ‘Run, my son, run!  They are near!.  I can make out their shining shields and glinting armour.’

731. evado, evadere, evasi, evasum = escape from, avoid;  J suggests ‘come to the end of’, as OLD#3b.cited.

735.hic mihi nescio quod trepido male numen amicum

736.confusam eripuit mentem.  namque avia cursu

737.dum sequor et nota excedo regione viarum,

738.heu misero coniunx fatone erepta Creusa

739.substitit, erravitne via seu lassa resedit,

740.incertum;  nec post oculis est reddita nostris.

735-6.Then some unfriendly spirit – I know not what – beset my troubled mind with confusion.

736-7.For some reason I began following unknown tracks, at a run, eschewing the well-known routes of our region.

738-9.Then, to my great sorrow and distress, I noticed that my wife Creusa was not keeping up with us.  Perhaps she had been taken by a malignant power, or wandered off the path, or fallen down exhausted.

740.Which of these was the case will never be known, but never did my eyes again behold her.

735.trepidus adj. = agitated.   male amicus adj. = hostile.

736.avius adj. = out of the way.   cursus cursus n. = the act of running.

737. nota viarum : part.gen.  excedo, excedere, excessi, excessum = withdraw, go away.

738:??the i of misero seems to be long.

739. subsisto, subsistere, substiti = cause to stop.   resideo, residere, resedi, resessus = sit down, fall back.

740.post adv. = afterwards.   reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus = give back, restore.

741.nec prius amissam respexi animumve reflexi

742.quam tumulum antiquae Cereris sedemque sacratam

743.venimus: hic demum collectis omnibus una

744.defuit, et comites natumque virumque fefellit.

745 quem non incusavi amens hominumque deorumque,

746.aut quid in eversa vidi crudelius urbe?

747.Ascanium Anchisenque patrem Teucrosque penates

748.commendo sociis et curva valle recondo;

749.ipse urbem repeto et cingor fulgentibus armis.

750.stat casus renovare omnes omnemque reverti

751.per Troiam et rursus caput obiectare periclis.

741-3.By the time I had looked back for my lost one, or considered her plight, we had reached the small hill with the site sacred to ancient Ceres.

743-4.Here at last, when we had all assembled, one was missing:  she had not been seen by any of the companions, and not by her son, and not by her husband.

745-6.Whom, of gods and men, did I not blame in my wild grief?  Or was anything I had seen in our ruined city more frightful than this?

747-9.I resolved to return to the city, first entrusting Ascanius, my father Anchises, and the gods of Troy, to the company.  I found them a hiding place in a sinuous valley, buckled on my bright armour, and set off.

750.I was resolved to face again all the dangers, to go through all Troy again, and again put my life in peril.

741.respicio, respicere, respexi, respectum = look back at (+...).    reflecto, reflectere, reflexi, reflexus = turn (bend) back, turn round.

742.sedes sedis f. = “applied to a temple, enclosure, etc. as the dwelling of a god” OLD 5a.

743.demum adv. = at last (+..., partic. = (this one) and no other, as P here).

741-3 : the small hill, because mentioned before, line 713.

744. fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsus + acc. = (here) be unperceived by.  OLD 6.

745.incuso 1. = blame, accuse.

746. everto, evertere, everti, eversum = destroy, ruin.

748. recondo, recondere, recondidi, reconditum = hide, put away.

749.cingor : middle.

750.stat : it stands (to me), I am resolved.      casus : acc.pl., = emergency.   revertor, reverti, reversus sum = go back.

751.rursus adv. = backward, on the other hand, again.   caput : here fig. = life.   obiecto 1. = expose.

752.principio muros obscuraque limina portae,

753.qua gressum extuleram, repeto et vestigia retro

754.observata sequor per noctem et lumine lustro:

755.horror ubique animo, simul ipsa silentia terrent.

756.inde domum, si forte pedem, si forte tulisset,

757.me refero:  inruerant Danai et tectum omne tenebant.

758.ilicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento

759.volvitur;  exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad auras.

752-4.To start with, I had reached the walls, and the dark doorway of the city gate.  Here I looked round for my route, retracing my steps,  peering intently in the darkness.

755.Fear filled my mind, and the echoing silences were terrifying.

756-7.Next I went back to the house, in the hope, the desperate hope, that she might have gone there.

757.But the Greeks had forced their way in, and were in possession of the whole place.

758-9.It was all over: the greedy flames were carried by the wind right up to the very top of the house. 

759.Fire triumphs, and the fierce heat rises to the skies.

752.limen liminis n. = threshold, entrance.

753.gressus gressus m. = step.   effero, efferre, extuli, elatum = raise, carry out.  (I guess gressum effero = bring one’s steps to, reach??).

754 : lumen fig. = eye.   lustro 1. = scan, survey (+...).

755 : P prints animos.

756.se refero = return (carry back oneself).

757. inruo, inruere, inrui, inrutum tr. = force a way into.   tectum tecti n. = roof, house.

758.ilicet interj. = it’s over.   edax edacis adj. = greedy.

759. volvo, volvere, volvi, volutum = roll, bring around.   exsupero 1. = overtop.   furo furere = rage, rave.

760.procedo et Priami sedes arcemque reviso:

761.et iam porticibus vacuis Iunonis asylo

762.custodes lecti Phoenix et dirus Vlixes

763.praedam adservabant.  huc undique Troia gaza

764.incensis erepta adytis, mensaeque deorum

765.crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis

766.congeritur.  pueri et pavidae longo ordine matres

767.stant circum.

760.I pressed on, and went again to Priam’s palace and  the citadel.

761-3.Here, in the deserted colonnades of Juno’s sanctuary,  the chosen custodians, Phoenix and the fierce Ulysses, were standing guard over the plunder.

763-6.To this place, from everywhere around, the Trojan treasure, including bowls of solid gold, and stolen vestments, taken from the burning sanctuaries and from the gods’ tables, was being gathered together.

766-7.Young boys, and their distraught mothers, stood waiting in a long row.

760. procedo, procedere, processi, processum = proceed, advance.   reviso revisere = revisit.

761.asylum asyli n. = place of refuge.

762.dirus adj. = terrible.

763.gaza gazae f. = treasure.


Q:  771-794:  Vision of Creusa


768.ausus quin etiam voces iactare per umbram

769.implevi clamore vias, maestusque Creusam

770.nequiquam ingeminans iterumque iterumque vocavi.

771.quaerenti et tectis urbis sine fine ruenti

772.infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae

773.visa mihi ante oculos et nota maior imago.

774.obstipui, steteruntque comae et vox faucibus haesit.

775.tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis:

768-70.I was now sad and desperate enough to cry out into the darkness.  I filled the streets with my cry.  I called the name of Creusa, again and again, with increasing force;  but in vain.

771-3.While I was endlessly searching, running in and out of houses in the city, a vision appeared before my eyes.  It was the unhappy shade of Creusa herself, appearing as an image larger than her known self.

774.I was staggered, my hair stood on end and my voice stuck in my throat.

775.Then, it seemed, she spoke to me in a way that allayed my anxiety, using these words:

768.quin etiam adv. = moreover, furthermore, in fact even (J).

769. impleo, implere, implevi, impletum = fill up, spend time.

770.nequiquam adv. = in vain.   ingemino 1. = redouble, intensify.

771. ruo ruere rui rutum = ruin, overthrow, run

774. obstipesco, obstipescere, obstipui = be amazed.   faux faucis f. = throat (in pl: pharynx.).   haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum = stick to.

775.adfor adfari adfatus sum = speak to.   demo, demere, dempsi, demptum = remove.

776.’quid tantum insano iuvat indulgere dolori,

777.o dulcis coniunx?  non haec sine numine divum

778.eveniunt;  nec te hinc comitem asportare Creusam

779.fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi.

776-7.“Aeneas, my darling, what good can it do to give way to this frantic sorrow?

777-8.These things do not happen except it be the will of the gods.

778-9.And it is not right that you should take your beloved Creusa from this place; the high lord of Olympus does not allow it.

778. evenio, evenire, eveni, eventum = happen, turn out.   asporto 1. = remove, take away.

779 : I had boldly taken superi = superari, following aut, thus ‘that he should be overruled’;  but that would need regnatorem.

779.superus adj. = high.

780.longa tibi exsilia et vastum maris aequor arandum,

781.et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva

782.inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris:

783.illic res laetae regnumque et regia coniunx

784.parta tibi;  lacrimas dilectae pelle Creusae.

785.non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas

786.aspiciam aut Grais servitum matribus ibo,

787.Dardanis et divae Veneris nurus;

788.sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris.

789.iamque vale et nati serva communis amorem.’

790.haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem

791.dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auras.

792.ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum;

793.ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago,

794.par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno.

780.“A long exile is in prospect for you, ploughing the immense surface of the sea,

781-2.but then you will come to a Western land where the Tiber flows in a gentle stream through the rich fields tilled by brave Lydians.

783-4.Joyful times wait for you there, a kingdom and a royal bride: you must forget the tears of your beloved Creusa.

785-7.It shall not be for me to face the arrogance of  a Myrmidon or a Dolopian;  no, and I shall not go in thrall to Greek mothers.  Not I, a proud Trojan, wife to the son of Venus.

788.Rather, the great mother of the gods is holding me within these shores.

789.And now – goodbye – do you hold on to the love of the son we share”.

790-1.She said these words and then left me.  I was weeping, and longing to say something back to her, but she just faded away with the insubstantial breeze.

792-4.There I tried, three times , to put my arms round her neck – a vain attempt, for three times the image I grasped just slipped through my fingers.  She disappeared as though she had been merely a gentle breeze, exactly as a fleeting dream.

780.aequor aequoris n. = level surface.   aro 1. = plough.

781-2 : tilled by brave... : virum has a connotation of bravery, and P speaks of Virgil’s feeling for sturdy farmers.

784. parta from pario : have been acquired.   pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum = drive out, banish.

786.servitum ibo : supine of purpose.

787.nurus nurus f. = daughter-in-law.

787 : a half-line, or hemistich, as e.g. the Gransden offprint;  unremarked by J or P.

788.detineo, detinere, detinui, detentum = hold, keep back.

789.- adj. = joint.

791. desero, deserere, deserui, desertum tr. = forsake, leave, desert.   tenuis adj. = fine, delicate.   recedo, recedere, recessi, recessum = withdraw, go back.   aura aurae f. = breeze.

792 : circumdare separated, though P differs.   bracchium brachii n. = arm.

793. frustra adv. = in vain.   comprendo, comprendere, comprendi, comprensum = grasp, embrace.

794.volucer adj. = winged.


Q:  795-804:  On Mount Ida.  (J and P  each prefer a new section at 796).


795.sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso.

796.Atque hic ingentem comitum adfluxisse novorum

797.invenio admirans numerum, matresque virosque,

798.collectam exsilio pubem, miserabile vulgus.

799.undique convenere animus opibusque parati

800.in quascumque velim pelago deducere terras.

801.iamque iugis summae surgebat Lucifer Idae

802.ducebatque diem, Danaique obsessa tenebant

803.limina portarum, nec spes opis ulla dabatur.

804.cessi et sublato montes genitore petivi.

795-7.Only when the night was over did I return to my people, where I was amazed to find that a vast number of new companions had joined us.

797-8.There were mothers, warriors, a formed body of men ready for exile, and also a sorry‑looking rabble of commoners.

799-800.From all around they had assembled, with everything they owned.  They were ready to set out across the sea, for me to lead them to whatever land I chose, to found a new city.

801-3.And now the Day Star led forth the day, rising over the highest point of Mount Ida.  The Greeks were holding all the entrances to our besieged city;  no prospect of success or power remained to us.

804.I yielded to events, hoisted my father onto my back, and set off for the mountains.

799-800 : ‘found a new city’ : implied by deducere.

801.iugum iugi n. = yoke, mountain ridge.

804. cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum = grant, yield.   tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum = lift, raise.